"The Prohibition Against Smoking" (Cont'd)

3. The Prohibition Against Smoking in Other Peoples’ Presence
Another Halakhic question which concerns the problem of smoking is,
“Is it permissible for a non-smoker to demand of a smoker to refrain
from smoking on the grounds that the smoke bothers him. It goes
without saying that in the house of the non-smoker, the right to
decide whether or not one smokes therein is his own. Hence, a guest
cannot demand that his host refrain from smoking in his presence, just
as he cannot himself smoke if the host if desires that he not.
The question is, what is the rule in public places, or in places which
are jointly owned. Can, in such circumstances, a non-smoker demand of
a smoker to refrain from smoking on the grounds that the smoke bothers

The Talmud (Baba Batra 23a) teaches us that even in a private domain
one must be careful not to cause damage to his fellow. For example, it
is forbidden for a homeowner to create a stench or smoke in his own
domain if it will be carried over into the domain of another causing
him discomfort. This is a clear proof that smoke is considered by
Jewish law as substance which damages and causes discomfort and that a
person can demand of his neighbor that he not create smoke which will
enter his domain and cause him uneasiness. This rule is true of a
public place as well: One can demand that his fellow refrain from
smoking. And if there are two office workers together in the same
room, one can tell the other not to smoke.
And even if over a long period of time one worker demonstrated no
opposition to his neighbor’s smoking, he still reserves the right to
demand that his coworker refrain from smoking. And if the smoker, in
such a situation, claims that because he has been smoking in this
place for years and nobody ever asked him to stop before, and since
this has become the established custom he ought to be able to continue
in his ways, it is, all the same, permissible according to Jewish law
to demand that the worker stop smoking. This is due to the fact that
it is well known that smoking greatly irritates certain people, and
nobody has the right to rely upon established custom where such a
custom involves discomfort to his neighbor.

All of the above is true even if we say that smoking does not affect
the health of those who inhale cigarette smoke, but merely causes
discomfort and unpleasantness; but today, with all that we know about
the health hazards involved in smoking even to those who only happen
to be in the smoker’s vicinity, the prohibition is all the more
severe. For example, studies have shown that when one of the members
of a couple smoke, the chances of the partner’s contracting cancer as
a result of cigarette smoke is three times greater than in couples
where neither smoke.
It is worth mentioning, in this light, that our beloved mentor, Rabbi
Tzvi Yehudah HaCohen Kook, zt”l, instructed his students in the Mercaz
HaRav Yeshiva not to smoke in the study-hall of the Yeshiva. Rabbi
Moshe Feinstein also forbade smoking in yeshiva study-halls and
synagogues because smoking causes damage even to passive bystanders.

"The Prohibition against Smoking" by Rabbi Eliezer Melamed (Cont'd)

Scientific Facts

Let us consider the scientific facts (as they appear in vol. 2 of
“Asya,” in the articles written by Dr. Meltzer, Dr. Hershkowitz, and
Prof. Katan) which served as the foundation for the Halakhic ruling
which forbids smoking.
There are three main diseases caused by smoking. The first affects the
lungs directly in the form of bronchitis and deterioration of the
lungs. These sicknesses attack the lungs’ immune system which stands
guard against elements which are dangerous to the body and they affect
the lungs’ ability to receive oxygen. In most cases, such ailments
damage an individual’s physical fitness and operational capacity,
while in rare instances they may even lead to death.

The second type of disease that may be caused by smoking is heart
disease: On the average, one in every four people who die from heart
disease received it as a result of smoking.
The third category is that of cancer. Comprehensive studies show that
smoking is the major environmental cause of cancer. The chances that a
man who smokes will contract cancer are twice as great as a man who
does not smoke. Smoking leads generally to lung cancer, to the point
that among smokers the rate of lung cancer is seven times higher than
among non-smokers. According to statistical calculations, then, we
find that more than 500 people die each year from lung cancer as a
result of smoking.

In summary, the death rate is much higher among smokers than among non-
smokers. For example, in a massive study carried out by American
insurance companies, it was discovered that the death rate of smokers
up to the age of forty-five is 80% higher than the death rate of non-
smokers of the same age group, while the death rate of smokers up to
the age of sixty is 125% higher than the death rate of non-smokers
belonging to the same age group.

In an interesting study carried out by one insurance company, it was
discovered that even the rate of traffic accidents for smokers is
higher than that of non-smokers. 6.59% smokers were involved in such
accidents while the rate among non-smokers was only 3.75%. The reason
for this difference is that smoking affects the hemoglobin, lessening
the amount of oxygen in the blood, which in turn damages the driver’s
concentration and judgment.
As a result of these studies many insurance companies raised the
prices of smokers’ policies.
At any rate, as concerns our discussion, as a result of these studies,
it was ruled that smoking is a severe violation of the Torah law.

"The Prohibition against Smoking"

1. The Prohibition against Smoking
A question that many people ask is, “What does Jewish law have to say
about smoking? Is it permissible or forbidden?”
Hundreds of years ago, there were doctors who believed that smoking
was actually a healthy practice, to the point where they would even
advise smoking to those suffering from certain types of sicknesses.
But, as time passed, it became increasingly clear that smoking is in
fact very bad for one’s health. Already some sixty years ago, in the
days of Rabbi Yisrael Meir from the city of Radin, or as he was better-
known as the “Chofetz Chaim,” the opinion of a number of doctors was
made public which stated that a frail person should not become
accustomed to smoking. These doctors explained that smoking saps a
person’s strength and might even cause death. Basing himself upon this
report, the “Chofetz Chaim” wrote that it is forbidden for a person to
accustom himself to smoking.
Despite this, though, because it was not clear to just what degree
smoking was dangerous, the majority of rabbis held that smoking was
not absolutely prohibited; only that it was not advisable to smoke.
They therefore did not object to Yeshiva students who had a practice
of smoking.
But, during the last few decades, it has become undeniably clear
through comprehensive studies that smoking is very dangerous to one’s
health. This being the case, it is clearly forbidden according to the
Torah to smoke. For, the Torah commands us to guard our lives, as it
says, “Only be careful and guard your soul greatly” (Deuteronomy 4:9),
and “You must guard your souls greatly (Ibid. 4:15). And the Torah has
commanded us to stay away from anything which might endanger life.
Therefore, if one builds a roof or a balcony, there is a Torah
obligation to build a guard-rail around it in order that nobody falls
from it. Hence we can see to just what degree a Jew is obligated to
maintain his health. It follows that the Torah prohibits smoking
(“Aseh Lekha Rav” vol. 2, 1; Tzitz Eliezer 15, 39).
As a side note it is worth mentioning here that Rabbi Dr. Mordechai
Halprin writes that it is possible that the prohibition against
smoking does not stem merely from the commandment to protect one’s
health. It may very well be that the Torah prohibition against
murdering also becomes an issue here. This is because with every
inhalation the smoker causes direct damage to his lungs and, in a
sense, brings his own death a bit closer. If this is the case, such a
person violates a severe negative commandment, “Thou shall not kill,”
which is one of the Ten Commandments.

PPrisoner Exchange in Jewish Law" Part 4

Israel’s Security Policy

We might liken Israel and its security policy to a person who
maintains a continuous $3,000 dollar overdraft in his bank account.
Over the course of fifty years he loses almost $30,000 in interest.
Yet, because he is unable to take control of himself, he lags months
behind schedule, forever in the debt.
The State of Israel maintains a constant state of overdraft, in both
its economy and its security. Israel’s economic problems are well
known to all. The national treasury spends money that it has not yet
received from community funds. As a result, we are forced to loan
money from the United States, and this, in turn, increases our
dependence upon America. No less a problem is the fact that we
maintain “overdraft” in the sphere of our defense policy. We do
everything when it is already too late. If the State of Israel had
waged a war on terrorist organizations two years ago our security
situation would be remarkably better today, and many Jewish lives
would have been spared.

Instead of carrying out “Operation Defensive Shield” after the large
terrorist attacks, it should have been carried out beforehand. Instead
of eliminating terrorist leaders after costly suicide bombings, they
should have been targeted beforehand, when they began to threaten us.
Instead of waiting another year or two to declare war upon the
Hezbollah, Israel should declare war upon them now. If we had
initiated the Yom Kippur War a few of hours earlier, the results would
have been immeasurably better.

May we merit witnessing the fulfillment of our prayers that “all
wickedness will disappear like smoke when You remove evil’s domination
from the earth. Then You, God, will reign alone over all Your works,
on Mount Zion, the resting place of your glory, and in Jerusalem, Your
holy city.”

"Prisoner Exchange in Jewish Law" Part 3

3. The Law Regarding Prisoners in Wartime

Though, as we have said, there are opinions that when the captive’s
life is at stake it is permissible to pay even more than the generally
accepted amount, in wartime it is forbidden to give in to any such
extortion whatsoever. The rule is that in times of war one does not
submit to any of the enemies demands. In fact, even in a case when the
enemy only stole some straw and hey from a border village, the
response must be a strong military one. For, as soon as one gives in
to them regarding a small matter, they will gain confidence and
increase their efforts to strike at us (see Eruvin 45a).

Therefore, if an enemy of Israel takes even a single hostage, we must
go to battle against them in order to save the captive, for if we
allow them to succeed in taking one hostage they will gain incentive
and step up their efforts to strike at us. To this effect we find in
the Torah (Numbers 21:1): “And when the Canaanites, the King of Arad,
who dwelt in the Negev, heard tell that Israel came by the way of
Atarim, he fought against Israel and took prisoner.” According to the
sages, they took only a single maidservant. Yet, in order to retrieve
her Israel did not suggest negotiations, but went to battle against
the Canaanites. An additional example can be brought from king David:
When the Amalekites attacked the town of Ziklag, taking the women
captive, David did not sit down at the negotiating table, but went to
war against them and saved the prisoners (Samuel 1:30).

In a case where Israel lacks the military capacity to engage the enemy
in battle it is permissible to exchange prisoners in the generally
accepted fashion, but any more than that is forbidden. This is all the
more true considering that we are today in an ongoing state of war
with surrounding countries and terrorist organizations and that every
concession is interpreted by them as an sign of weakness. Such
submission merely leads to more attacks and more attempts to take
hostages. What’s more, as a result of our willingness to free large
numbers of prisoners for one or two Israeli hostages, the terrorists
fear us less, for they figure that even if they do get caught, they
will most likely be freed before long in a prisoner exchange deal. It
should also be noted that many of the terrorists who have been
released by Israel in the past simply returned to their terrorist
activities, murdering, in turn, hundreds of Israelis. Hence, as a
result of our receiving one Israeli hostage, tens and perhaps even
hundreds of other innocent Israelis have been murdered.

It is important to realize, though, that at the end of the war, when a
final cease-fire agreement is reached between the sides, it is
permissible for Israel to release all of the enemy prisoners in its
possession in turn for all of our own captives being held by the enemy
– even if we have taken many captives. The reason for this is that
such exchanges are recognized as accepted practice at the end of the
war and are hence not considered acts of extortion. Unfortunately,
though, we do not foresee such an end to war and terrorism arriving
anytime in Israel’s near future.

"Prisoner Exchange in Jewish Law" – Part 2 of 4

2. The Maharam of Rothenburg

The Maharam of Rothenburg

Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg (1215-1293 c.e.), known as the Maharam, was
one of the greatest of the early Jewish codifiers. At the age of
seventy he was taken captive and placed in the Ensisheim prison in
Alsace, France. Emperor Rudolf I proceeded to demand an exorbitant sum
for his release. In order to understand the full significance of this
act it is important to realize that almost all of the rabbis and
leaders of the Jewish communities in that generation were the
Maharam’s students. Even the great rabbis of the generation that
followed were greatly influenced by the teachings of the Maharam. The
most famous of his students was Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel, known as the
Rosh, whose rulings are cited extensively in Rabbi Yosef Karo’s
Shulchan Arukh. Because the Maharam was so important a figure, Emperor
Rudolf I hoped to extort a huge ransom from the Jewish community.
Indeed, the emperor’s evil scheme nearly succeeded. The Maharam’s
students and admirers were prepared to raise the sum necessary to free
their master. They felt that though the law forbids paying more for a
captive than the accustomed amount, when the captive at hand is the
leading Torah scholar of the generation, and the entire community is
in need of him and his Torah wisdom, it is permissible to pay any fee.
But the renowned Maharam would not permit it to be paid, for he
understood that such an act would only encourage the enemies of Israel
to imprison other rabbis in the future and demand huge sums for their
release. As a result, Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg spent the final seven
years of his life in the Ensisheim prison – and it was there that he

By virtue of his greatness of spirit and his self-sacrifice for the
sake of the general good, the Maharam succeeded in preventing a dam
from breaking open: He saved the Torah leaders of future generations
from captivity, and the Jewish community from gigantic expenses which
may well have caused their complete financial ruin.

(Prisoner Exchange in Jewish Law (Part 1 of 4

1. “For the Sake of the General Welfare”

“For the sake of the general welfare”
The Sages of the Mishna teach: “Captives should not be ransomed for
more than their value, for the sake of the general welfare.” The
enactment of such a law was necessary, lest kidnapping become a
lucrative trade. The Rif (Rabbi Yitzhak Alfasi), the Rambam (Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon), the Rosh (Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel), and the Tur
(Rabbi Jacob ben Asher) all rule accordingly, as does Rabbi Yosef Karo
in his authoritative Shulchan Arukh (see Yoreh Deah 252:4).
Yet, regarding a situation in which the life of the prisoner is at
stake – i.e., his captors threaten to murder him if they do not
receive the ransom they desire – Torah authorities are divided: Some
say that it is permissible under such circumstances to pay more than
the captive’s value, because a Jewish life is at stake; others,
though, maintain that such a deal is forbidden out of consideration
for the general good, for if an agreement is reached, the terrorists
will simply step up their efforts to take additional captives.

"Prisoner Exchange in Jewish Law" Part 1 of 4

1. “For the Sake of the General Welfare”

“For the sake of the general welfare”
The Sages of the Mishna teach: “Captives should not be ransomed for
more than their value, for the sake of the general welfare.” The
enactment of such a law was necessary, lest kidnapping become a
lucrative trade. The Rif (Rabbi Yitzhak Alfasi), the Rambam (Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon), the Rosh (Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel), and the Tur
(Rabbi Jacob ben Asher) all rule accordingly, as does Rabbi Yosef Karo
in his authoritative Shulchan Arukh (see Yoreh Deah 252:4).
Yet, regarding a situation in which the life of the prisoner is at
stake – i.e., his captors threaten to murder him if they do not
receive the ransom they desire – Torah authorities are divided: Some
say that it is permissible under such circumstances to pay more than
the captive’s value, because a Jewish life is at stake; others,
though, maintain that such a deal is forbidden out of consideration
for the general good, for if an agreement is reached, the terrorists
will simply step up their efforts to take additional captives.

On Rabbi's and Politics

  1. Cause for Redemption
  2. The High Road to Salvation
  3. Two Paths
  4. ‘I will hasten it in its Time’
  5. Torah Luminaries and Political Leaders
  6. Royal Rabbis

Cause for Redemption

Question: Why do the Rabbis today not stand up with strength and
courage, like Mattityahu in the days of the Maccabean revolt, and lead
the Jewish people in a religious re-awakening and an all-out war with
the Arab enemy? Why do they not take as their role model the
Maccabee’s who dared to engage the Greeks and the Jewish Hellenists in

Answer: Mattityahu the Hasmonean priest did not begin his revolt when
Hellenism gripped the Jews, and our beautiful and holy city of
Jerusalem changed her complexion and took on the appearance of a
Hellenist city. Even when Hellenism had infected the Holy Sanctuary
itself, and the High Priests of Israel took upon themselves Greek
names and frequented the athletic games in the coliseum that stood
adjacent to the Temple Mount more frequently than they performed the
Divine worship in the Holy Temple, no revolt was instigated.

The revolt did not begin until things became virtually unbearable as a
result of religious persecution – when the Greeks, aided by
Hellenists, began to force people to practice idolatry. The vast
majority of pious Jews fled to the hills and the caves, and when they
were caught, they sanctified God’s name by giving their lives rather
than committing idolatry. Mattityahu the Priest chose the path of
active resistance and initiated the Hasmonean revolt.

The High Road to Salvation

Even so, this is not the ideal path to redemption. Ideally, Israel’s
redemption should pour forth from a genuine inner awakening and true
desire on the part of the masses. For, as a result of strengthening of
faith and Torah study, the nation will become united around Torah
values. This, in turn, will lead to the land’s liberation and the
construction of the Holy Temple. Such was the case in the time of
Samuel the Prophet and King David. It was the impact of the Prophet’s
Samuel’s educational activity that unified the nation and readied the
people for accepting upon themselves a king who would lead them in
realizing truly Divine ideals.
This was King David’s uniqueness. He initiated and brought about the
creation of the kingdom of Israel according to his own premeditated
plan. The judges that preceded David were different. Each of these
Judges rose up in response to enemy attacks from without. In order to
defend Israel and rebuff such assaults, each Judge united the people
and uplifted their spirits. David, though, took premeditated and
calculated steps in order to unite the Jews. He began by assisting
King Saul in his war with the Philistines, and when in time, Saul’s
jealousy of him grew, David chose to leave the public arena in order
not to cause a rift in the nation. Even after Saul’s death, David took
slow and calculated steps. He began by establishing his kingdom in
Judea. When the time was ripe, after the nation had accepted his
leadership, David made Jerusalem the seat of his kingdom. This step
was taken so that the entire nation would rally around the city of
Jerusalem, thus becoming the holy capital. In battle too, David’s
driving force was apparent. Rather than waiting for them to build up
strength and attack, David engaged the surrounding enemies in war.
Hence, till this day we proclaim: ‘David the King of Israel is alive
and enduring!’ It was David who established the kingdom of Israel.
Generally speaking, though, our salvation flowered in response to
difficulties and hardships which plagued the nation.

Two Paths

The first path calls for bringing the Redemption via our own active
initiative, like Samuel the Prophet and King David who displayed human
effort and were aided from above. This is ‘Redemption by choice,’ and
this is the preferred path.
The second path plays itself out via Divine intervention. Seeing the
hopeless plight of the Jewish people and their inability to advance
toward the desired elevated goals, God covertly intervenes in
historical events, creating a ‘no choice’ situation by virtue of which
the Nation of Israel is forced to take a stand and free itself. This
is a ‘no choice Redemption’ and it is riddled with difficulties and
hardships. To some degree, the redemption of Chanukah was of this
latter sort, for it began as a reaction to the barbarous decrees of
We, of course, yearn for a redemption which comes about as a result of
the ascent of the entire nation through faith, Torah, and the
settlement of the Land of Israel. We pray that in this manner the
Kingdom of David will be restored, leading to a peaceful and pleasant
redemption. Concerning the verse in the Book of Isaiah: ‘The least one
shall become a thousand and the smallest one a strong nation. I the
Lord will hasten it in its time,’ the Sages teach us: If you are
worthy: ‘I… will hasten it.’ If not: ‘… it will come in its
natural time.’

‘I Will Hasten it in its Time.’

There also exists a possibility of a redemption that combines both of
the paths we have mentioned. This sort of process is essentially ‘no-
choice,’ as illustrated in the twenty-sixth chapter of Ezekiel, yet
contains an element of human effort. This, in fact, is the literal
meaning of the passage: ‘I the Lord will hasten it in its time.’ Into
the midst of a natural ‘in its time’ process of redemption enters the
miraculous element of ‘I will hasten it.’
The more active a part we take in the process of our own Redemption –
through settling the land, education, kind deeds, and above all
through delving into the Torah of the Land of Israel, which directs
the Jewish people toward the Divine goal of preparing the world for
the Heavenly Kingdom – the more acceptable will be the suffering which
accompanies the Redemption and the birth-pangs of the Messiah.

In our next posting, Rabbi Melamed will relate to the following topic:

Torah Luminaries and Political Leaders

Question: Why did the revolt of the Maccabee’s not begin until forced
idolatry reached the hometown of Mattityahu the Kohen, Modi’in?

This and much more…

How Are Leaders Produced?

The Most Severe Problem – Unclear Goals
In addition to our deficiency when it comes to a heritage of
leadership, the religious-Zionist public has another problem, one
which is more serious: our fundamental goals are not well enough
defined. Despite the fact that, in many ways, ours is the best and
most balanced sector in the State of Israel, a smokescreen covers all
of our goals. The religious-Zionist community identifies with all the
important, Torah-related, national and universal values. We possess a
fundamentally positive view of both Torah and academic study, of both
Yeshiva students and those who work for a living. We esteem those who
devote themselves to the nation and the land via military service,
settlement, immigrant absorption, and the development of industry.
However, the manner in which all these values fit together is not
clear. How do we go about combining all of these praiseworthy and
important values? What do we do when two ideals conflict? How do we
determine which takes precedence? After giving precedence to one, how
do we nonetheless manage to give authentic expression to both ideals?
These questions have yet to be answered, and in such a state, it is
impossible to produce leadership. Leadership needs to have a clear
line of approach, and when the goals are not clear, it is impossible
to establish leadership.

Neither should one take this matter lightly, for the Talmud teaches
(Shabbat 119b): Rabbi Isaac said: “Jerusalem was destroyed only
because the small and the great were made equal, for it is said, “And
it shall be as with the people, so with the priest,” which is followed
by, “The land shall be utterly emptied” (Isaiah 24).

We see, therefore, that when there is no clear order regarding what is
“great” and what is “small,” i.e., which value takes precedence over
another, the entire value system crumbles and falls into ruin, and the
land is laid waste.

Torah and Science
Let us consider, for example, the relationship between Torah and the
sciences. Generally speaking, all students of Torah ought to take a
positive approach to the study of science, as explained in the Talmud
(Shabbat 85a). The Sages even enacted a blessing to be recited when
one sees an outstanding non-Jewish scholar: “Blessed are You O
Lord . . . Who has given from His wisdom to human beings.” The various
sciences, then, are considered God’s wisdom (and see Maharal, Netiv
HaTorah, chap. 14). Concerning this, the Gaon from Vilna, Rabbi Elijah
the son of Shlomo Zalman, says that whoever lacks the knowledge of a
portion of the secular sciences lacks a hundred portions of knowledge
of the Torah.

All the same, it goes without saying that Torah wisdom is preeminent
and superior to all other wisdoms.

Here the question arises: On a practical level, what sort of
relationship ought to exist between Torah and science? Should a person
begin studying sciences only after he has finished all of his Torah
studies? That is, at the age of about 700? Or should the student begin
combining secular studies with religious studies while still young?
And just how much should be incorporated? Perhaps this depends upon
the character of the individual?  How do we determine this?

In practice, because these matters have not been clarified, a deep
rift divides the Yeshiva world and the world of academia, each side
pulling with all of its might in its own direction. And this tension
gives rise to strong, reciprocal criticism. However, if the two sides
would sit down and calmly discuss the problem, they would most
certainly agree that both the Yeshiva and academia are of great value.
However, it must be pointed out that compromise is not the key to
solving the essential problem. Profound clarification is called for in
order to combine Torah and science in an ideal manner, i.e., in a
fruitful manner.

So long as we do not carry out such a clarification, it will be very
difficult to provide a comprehensive vision for the religious-Zionist
public as a whole, a public which must produce Torah scholars,
scientists, business-people, professionals, etc. When such a vision is
lacking, it is impossible to establish a study program which will
provide a variety of possibilities for different people. When both
vision and means are lacking, it is impossible to produce leadership
which will act to realize and communicate this to the public at large.

Torah and Livelihood
The ideal relationship between Torah study and earning a living also
remains a question. Is it best for a person to study in a Kollel
(Yeshiva for married men) his entire life, as some Haredi, “ultra
Orthodox” rabbis advise, or is such behavior forbidden in light of the
ruling of the Rambam (Maimonides)? Should a Jew make do with as little
as possible, leading a life of poverty and dedicating most of his time
to Torah study? Or is there value in the fact that a person spends a
lot of time at work and becomes wealthy?

This issue has not yet been solved, and there are many who waver: on
the one hand, they admire and praise the dedication of one who does
not work for a living at all, but lives off of a Kollel stipend his
entire life. Yet, at the same time, they are angered by such a person
and say that, in light of the Rambam’s ruling, he desecrates God. It
is difficult to educate youth according to such an approach, and even
more so to lead a public and provide an ideal example of Jewish life.

The same goes for the relationship between Judaism and democracy,
Torah justice and the law of the state, Yeshiva study and army
service, and many other issues. And, again, when such issues are not
sufficiently clarified, it is impossible to establish a position and
strive on its behalf.

Leadership must set up clear goals and press forward to fulfill them.
We do not have leaders because we do not have clear goals, and we do
not have clear goals because we lack able leadership. We must
presently work towards developing a system of leadership and
clarifying the foundations of our outlook.