Treatment of Animals in Judaism

Treatment of Animals in Judaism

One issue that is important to determine morally is: What is the appropriate treatment, according to the Torah, towards animals? The main rule is that animals should be treated humanely and fairly, and the Torah prohibits causing harm to animals. In addition, it is not only forbidden to harm animals, but we are also commanded to take action in order to ease their suffering, as we learned from the commandments of unloading the donkey. A man, who sees a donkey lying under his burden, is commanded to unload the cargo off, in order to prevent him from sorrow. From this we learn that whenever a person sees an animal suffering, and he could help it, he is obliged to try and save it from its distress.
Seemingly, there is a conflict: If the above is true, how do we slaughter cattle, animals and birds, and eat their flesh? It seems there is no greater cruelty than this. However, the rule is that when a conflict arises between human and animal’s needs, human needs come first. Just as the animals can eat plants, people may eat animal products; however, for any non-essential need it is prohibited to harm animals. Therefore, since meat is very important for human nutrition, the Torah allows us to slaughter animals in order to eat. Also, there is doubt how much suffering slaughtering an animal causes. It is possible that the moment of slaughter is so short that the animal feels very little pain.
In the early generations, Adam was forbidden to eat meat. And even though it says, “ורדו בדגת הים ובעוף השמים ובכל חיה הרומשת על הארץ”, “and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creeps upon the earth” the meaning is that according to the ideal of creation, the animals should be servants to mankind, for man is the crown of creation, but nevertheless, he is forbidden to be cruel towards them, and forbidden to kill them in order to eat them.
However, following the Sin of Adam and the sins of the Generation of the Flood, the whole world had fallen from its original virtue; people become less ethical, the nature of animals became less spiritual, they turned to brutality, and began devouring each other. Even the land was corrupted, and produced thorns and thistles. In this new situation, man is obligated to first correct the moral foundations of human relations – not to steal or rob, let alone not to kill – and only after the basic morality between men is correctly established, and wars and injustices cease to exist, only then may we continue to rise in morality, and seek the betterment our relationship with animals. For that purpose, it was necessary to draw a distinct line between the animals and man, who was created in God’s image, in order to highlight man’s purpose and responsibility, for it is only his duty to fix the world and raise it to a higher point. For that reason, after the flood, humans were allowed to eat animal flesh, as it is said to Noah: “כירק עשב נתתי לכם את כל” “As the green herb have I given you all.”
It must be further explained that following the sins of Adam and the generations before the flood, nature itself has changed. That is, the moral decline affected all aspects of life, including the nutrition system. Up to the generation of the flood, people could receive all their nutritional needs from plants. After the sin and the collapse of all systems of nature – plants were no longer sufficient for a person, and therefore, God allowed Noah and his sons to eat the flesh of cattle, birds, animals and fish. In other words, the moral decline of the world created a completely new eco-environment, in which we have to act contrary to the original ideal. Also, in the current state of the world, if we stop eating meat, it is not clear that it would be beneficial for those species we are used to eating their flesh. If we do not continue to raise and breed them for mankind, their numbers in population will decrease rapidly, because currently they breed under supervision; however, if all the oxen and chickens where set loose quite quickly very few of them would survive.
Nevertheless, we remember that the in the ideal situation, before the sin, Adam was commanded not to eat animal products. And therefore we know that in the future, after the world will be corrected, heaven and earth will be renewed, the nature of man and animals will change and become more spiritual; at that point, we will revert back to that ideal moral sensitivity, according to which it will be forbidden to kill animals to eat their flesh (Rabbi Kook, The Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace, 2).

Compassion for Animals

The Talmud (Bava Metzia 85a) tells a wonderful story that helps in understanding the way we should treat animals. Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi (Rebbe) was one of the greatest Torah scholars of all generations. His illustrious enterprise – editing the Mishnah – is the foundation of the study of Torah Shebe’al Peh, the oral tradition. It also said that he had “”תורה וגדולה במקום אחד Torah and greatness in one place, in that he was a great scholar in addition to being extremely rich and holding a high status in the eyes of the Roman kingdom. One day he saw a calf taken for slaughter. Having sensed what was about to take place, and in order to escape its fate, the calf fled and hid his head under Rebbe’s garment, bursting into tears. Rebbe said to the calf – ‘go to the butcher, for that is the purpose for which you have been created’. At that moment, it was declared in heaven that since Rebbe did not have mercy on the calf, he wouldl be doomed to anguish and suffering. Rebbe suffered for thirteen years from a severe tooth ache and pain during urination. One day while cleaning his house, Rebbe’s handmaid found little rat pups, and wanted to discard them. Rebbe told her – ‘leave them alone, for it is written: “ורחמיו על כל מעשיו” God has mercy over all his works (Psalm 145:9). At that moment, it was declared in heaven that since Rebbe had shown great mercy towards animals, he would be worthy of receiving mercy himself, and his pain and anguish was relieved.
Even though according to halakha we are allowed to slaughter animals to eat their flesh, our Sages came to teach us through this story that, at any rate, we should show a little regret for having to kill them, because in the world’s ideal situation, people could make do with vegetarian food, and only after the world was lowered from its original high caliber following Sin of Adam and the sin of the Generation of the Flood, the laws of nature changed, and humans began eating animals. But from the aspect of ideal truth, we should be a little bit disturbed when we see the suffering of animals. This is why Rebbe was punished with suffering when he failed to show pity towards a calf, for due to his important stature and righteousness, he should have shown mercy towards the calf, and let him hide for a little while under his garment until he calmed down and agreed to go. When Rebbe ignored his sorrow and drove him away, he was punished through suffering. In the same way, when he showed his compassion for the little rats, pity was shown on him from heaven. (According to Rabbi Kook’s “Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace”, 1).
It should be noted that precisely because Rebbe was such a great man – he received a more severe punishment. For all the desire and will of a great man is to attain a high moral state, and be pure and perfect. This is why the righteous rejoice in the suffering that comes to purify them and cleanse them. It is told that Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi himself would pray that if it is seen in Heaven that he needs further refinement, he should receive more suffering. And because he suffered due to his moral virtue – to sanctify and purify himself – the Sages said that in all the years Rebbe suffered, the world did not experience drought (ibid, Bava Metzia).

For our purposes, we learned from the words of our Sages, that we should develop the natural feeling of compassion toward animals, and even though today we are accustomed to eating their flesh, we should know that this is not the ideal situation, and we should try to alleviate the sorrow of animals. In the future, when the world is corrected, we will rise to the level of Adam, and will not have to harm animals to eat their flesh.

Not to Educate towards Vegetarianism

After learning that the primordial ideal was for humans not to eat animals, naturally the question arises: Is it appropriate to encourage people to refrain from eating meat for moral and ethical reasons? Rabbi Kook writes that although ideally we were not meant to slaughter animals to eat their flesh, and this is even hinted in the Torah in the way it describes the matter of eating meat as a ‘passion’, as it is written: “כי תאוה נפשך לאכול בשר, בכל אות נפשך תאכל בשר” ” Because your soul desires to eat flesh; you may eat flesh, after all the desire of your soul ” (D’varim 12:20), nevertheless, presently the teaching is that while there still is a desire within man to eat meat, it is a sign  we still have not reached that higher moral level in which we should avoid killing animals (Rabbi Kook, Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace,4). Presently our main obligation is to fix all human relationships so they be moral and upright, for obviously, injuring a person seriously is infinitely more severe than an injuring an animal. Man is created in the image of God, and has thought and emotion; when someone does him injustice, he is sorry and hurt far more than an animal who does not have wisdom. And to properly emphasize the moral claim of “ואהבת לרעך כמוך”, “Love thy neighbor as thyself”, the Torah ordered us to relinquish, for now, the supreme moral demand not to harm animals (Rabbi Kook, Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace 5;6).
Therefore, a person may slaughter animals to eat, and as our Sages said (Kiddushin 82a), all creatures were created to serve man, and in the current moral level of the world, this means one is allowed to eat them. Moreover, if we were to become overly concerned with educating towards compassion and love for animals, it could lead to dreadful human relations, for some people on a lower moral level might say to themselves: “Since we are not careful about killing animals and eating them, we can also kill people who stand in our way, and maybe even eat their flesh”. Others would express their kindness only towards animals, and given that in all evil there is also a spark of morality and good, after appeasing their conscience, would have no problem stealing, robbing and killing other people, for in their hearts, they could boast about their compassion towards their pets (Vision of Vegetarianism 6:11). Therefore, the Torah instructed us not to refrain from eating meat; this is the custom of almost all the Gedolei Torah, and only a few radical idealists refrain from eating meat.

In the future, however, the world will be  morally elevated, and as the Kabbalists say, the animals will also progress and evolve to the point where they will talk, and even their moral virtues will change completely, and as the prophet Isaiah said “וגר זאב עם כבש, ונמר עם גדי ירבץ, ועגל וכפיר ומריא יחדו, ונער קטון נוהג בם. ופרה ודב תרעינה יחדו ירבצו ילדיהן, ואריה כבקר יאכל תבן. ושעשע יונק על חור פתן ועל מאורת צפעוני גמול ידו הדה. לא ירעו ולא ישחיתו בכל הר קדשי, כי מלאה הארץ דעה את ה’ כמים לים מכסים”. “And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk’s den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea” (Isaiah 11:6-9) At that time, all will understand that it is not fitting to kill animals to eat their flesh. In the words of the prophet Hoshea “וכרתי להם ברית ביום ההוא עם חית השדה ועם עוף השמים ורמש האדמה, וקשת וחרב ומלחמה אשבור מן הארץ” “And in that day will I make a covenant for them with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven, and with the creeping things of the ground; and I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the land, and will make them to lie down safely (Hoshea 2 20). (Rabbi Kook, Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace,12:32).

Special Righteous Customs Regarding Eating Meat

We learned in the previous halakha that according to the primordial ideal, man was not supposed to kill animals for eating, as explained in the Talmud Tractate Sanhedrin (59b). Only after the Sin of Adam, and sin of the Generation of the Flood, when the world descended from its original moral level and animals also became less spiritual, the laws of nature changed and animals began to devour each other, only then was man allowed to eat animal products. On Shabbat and Yom Tov there is even a mitzvah to eat meat as commanded in the Torah, to rejoice on a Yom Tov, and the vast majority of people experience happiness by drinking wine and eating meat (Beur Halacha 529:2, ‘keitsad’). And on Shabbat, there is a mitzvah to savor, and since most people relish eating meat and drinking wine, there is a mitzvah to eat meat on Shabbat (S. A. Orach Chaim 150:2; Mishna Brura 242:1). When the Temple existed, there was also a mitzvah to eat the meat of certain korbanot (sacrifices).
Seemingly, one might ask: Since we learned that originally humans were not permitted to eat meat, how did eating meat, which was forbidden by the initial ideal, now become a mitzvah? The simple answer is, given that our morality has changed, in practice, there is currently no ethical problem with eating meat, and since we are commanded to rejoice on the Shabbat and Yom Tov, and meat affects joy, we are ordered to eat it. But there is a deeper explanation in the Kabala, that in our current moral state, it is good for us to eat meat. According to the Arizal, as a result of the sin, the whole world fell from its original level – the inanimate, flora, fauna, and man all declined from their high level, and some evil got mixed in them. Therefore when a Jew meat in holiness, the evil separates from the good, and the good reverts back to its origin. When a man eats an animal, the evil within it comes out as waste, and the good part is absorbed in his body and converted into energy, giving power to do good deeds, and thus the animal rises to the level of man. The same concept is true with plants sucking their food from the inanimate, and thus uplifting the good in the inanimate world. And when an animal feeds off plants, it raises the good which is in flora, to the level of living. So when humans eat the animals and behave morally and get closer to G-d, through the food chain they return the world to its original moral state. This is especially true when we eat meat on Shabbat and Yom Tov, or a mitzvah meal such as a wedding, etc. The meat becomes a part of the joy of a mitzvah, and assists in its existence. In a regular dinner however, the Kabbalists say this is not necessarily the case, for if the person does not behave properly, then the consumption of meat was not part of any rectification and purification. Therefore, some righteous people avoid eating meat in regular meals, for they desire their eating to be only as a part of a mitzvah, and if it is not absolutely clear that the spark of good in the flesh is elevated by their eating, there is a moral problem with killing the animals for food.
Accordingly, we can understand our Sages when they said, that from a moral point of view, an am ha’aretz (an unlearned person) should not eat meat (Pesachim 49b). The reason is that a person without Torah and good morals, who despises Torah scholars and people of worth, is not considered to be superior to the animals, and therefore has no right to kill and eat them.
That is generally our Sages view on eating meat in our times. Although, there are some individuals who have a fine moral sense in their hearts, and have taken upon themselves not to eat meat at all, even though according to the Kabala, it is appropriate to eat meat in a seudat mitzvah. In any case there, were Kabalists who saw this in a positive light, in order to be extra pure, (“Sdei Hemed” Ma’arahat Achila, ‘eating meat’), and Rabbi Kook calls them radical idealists. But the general instruction for a person who desires to be blessed and serve G-d, is to occupy oneself mainly with correcting moral behavior between man and his fellow neighbor, and to eat meat at a seudot mitzvah.

This article was translated from Hebrew

The Enveloping Light of the Sukkah

The Enveloping Light of the Sukkah
The mitzvah of sitting in the Sukkah is unique in sanctifying man’s daily routines. The eating and drinking, the chatting, and the sleeping which we do in the Sukkah are elevated and sanctified to the point where they are deemed mitzvoth.
It is specifically on Sukkot that we merit this, because Sukkot is Chag HaAsif (the holiday of in-gathering). This is when both the physical and spiritual in-gathering of the year are completed – the in-gathering of grain and fruit, as well as the in-gathering of all our Torah study and all of our good deeds. Thanks to the repentance and atonement that we undergo during the month of Elul and Aseret Yemei Teshuvah(the ten days of repentance), this in-gathering is innocent and pure, and we can thoroughly enjoy it.
Sukkah and the Land of Israel
In this sense, the mitzvah to live in the Sukkah and the mitzvah to settle the Land ofIsrael are similar (Vilna Ga’on, cited in Kol HaTor 1:7). Both of these mitzvoth envelop us, and we immerse ourselves in their atmosphere of holiness. By doing so, even our mundane activities become sanctified.
By settling the Land, the Jewish people show the world that when life is illuminated by faith and Torah, everything becomes sanctified: eating, drinking, and sleeping; family life and interpersonal relationships; work and craft; business and scientific research.
The Sukkah of Peace
If we gather together all the different types and degrees of goodness, even those which seem to contradict each other, God spreads His Sukkah of peace over us, and the Jewish people stand united and with solidarity. If each positive quality stands alone, there is no unity. But on the holiday of in-gathering, when all positive qualities are gathered together, unity appears. Thus our Sages state: “It is appropriate for all Jews to sit in one Sukkah” (Sukkah 27b). Similarly, taking the four species together hints at the variety of Jews who join together on Sukkot.
The Land of Israel unites the entire Jewish people, including all its groups and subgroups; the redemption depends upon this. Therefore, it comes as no great surprise that all the evil in the world has risen up against the Jewish people, which has returned to rebuild its homeland in accordance with God’s word as conveyed by His servants the prophets.
Israel and the Nations of the World
Since Sukkot reveals the sanctity of all spheres of life, the holiday is relevant to non-Jews (who are traditionally referred to as the seventy nations of the world). Accordingly, our Sages state that the seventy bulls which we offered in the Templeover the course of Sukkot were offered on behalf of the seventy nations. (SeePeninei HalakhaLaws of Sukkot 1:13.)
Our relationship with non-Jews is complex. Throughout our long history, they often viciously abused us; nevertheless, our basic attitude towards them is positive.
The following two quotes from the Sages illustrate this attitude. The Talmud states, “Woe to the non-Jews, who lost something but do not know what they lost. When theTemple stood, the altar atoned for them. Now who atones for them?!” (Sukkah 55b). According to the Midrash, “The Jews said, ‘Master of the Universe, we offer seventy bulls [for the non-Jews]; they should love us, but they hate us.’ Thus we read in Tehillim 109:4: ‘They answer my love with accusation, but I am all prayer’” (Bamidbar Rabbah 21:24).
Sukkot in the Future
Because Sukkot is the holiday which expresses the connection between Jews and non-Jews, in the future it will be the litmus test for the nations of the world. All who ascend to Jerusalem on Sukkot, to bow before God and to celebrate together with the Jewish people, will merit great blessing. This accords with what Zechariah says about non-Jews: “All who survive of all those nations that came up against Jerusalemshall make a yearly pilgrimage to bow to the King, Lord of Hosts, and to observe the holiday of Sukkot. Any of the earth’s communities that do not make the pilgrimage toJerusalem to bow to the King, Lord of Hosts, shall receive no rain. . . It shall be afflicted by the same plague with which the Lord will strike the other nations that do not come up to observe the holiday of Sukkot” (Zechariah 14:16-18).
Attitude Towards Philo-Semitic Christians
In modern times, we have witnessed increased support for Israel among evangelical Christians. Lord Balfour is probably the best-known among them. Thanks to his belief in the Bible, he spearheaded the British decision to establish a national home for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. Since the foundation of the State of Israel, the numbers of philo-Semitic evangelicals have increased. They see with their own eyes how the Jewish people is returning to its land after its awful, two-thousand-year-long exile, and is creating a prosperous country. They see new settlements and vineyards flowering in the very areas described by the Bible, and they are excited by our miraculous return to Zion. They are overwhelmed by the fulfillment of the ancient prophecies of the prophets of Israel.
However, Jews must deal with the question of how to relate to friendly Christians. For close to two thousand years, Christians have persecuted the Jewish people – murdering, debasing, expelling, or forcibly converting them. How is it that suddenly Christians love us? Furthermore, how do we handle the Rambam’s declaration that Christianity is idolatry?
The Attitude Towards the Jews and the Torah Is the Litmus Test
It would seem that everything depends on their attitude towards the Jewish people and the Torah. The most serious problem we have with Christianity is its denial of God’s choice of the Jewish people and of the eternal relevance of the Torah. Christians have classically believed in supersessionism, maintaining that they have replaced the Jews and that the Torah and its commandments are no longer binding. Because of these beliefs, they caused us a tremendous amount of suffering. Additionally, they did as much as they possibly could to convert Jews to Christianity.
As Rav Kook puts it: “The primary poison contained in belief systems which deviate from the Torah, such as Christianity and Islam, is not in their concepts of God, even though they differ from what is correct according to the fundamental light of the Torah. Rather, [the poison] is in what results from them –abrogating the practical mitzvot and extinguishing the [Jewish] nation’s hope regarding its complete renaissance” (Shemonah KevatzimKovetz 1, #32).
Elsewhere, in discussing Jewish attitudes towards different religions, Rav Kook states that our goal is not to replace or nullify them, but rather to gradually elevate and correct them, so their dross will disappear. This will inevitably lead [the religions] to return to their Jewish source (Igrot HaRa’ayah, Vol. 1, p. 142). It seems that Christian philo-Semites are undergoing a very impressive process of elevation never previously experienced by Christianity. Therefore, with the appropriate caution, we are spiritually and ethically obligated to relate to this process very positively.
Tommy Waller
Recently, a troublemaker distributed libelous materials accusing Tommy Waller, an American Christian, of being a missionary. This despite the fact that Tommy has been actively recruiting Christian volunteers for Israel for ten years, and not a single Jew claims that Tommy or any of the thousands of people he has brought here have tried to undermine their faith. Therefore, I feel it is incumbent upon me to speak on his behalf.
Out of an abiding faith in the uniqueness of the Jewish people and in the Divine mission to settle the Land, Tommy has rallied support for Israel from American Congressmen and Senators. The head of the Shomron Regional Council, Mr. Gershon Mesika, told me that Tommy’s activities have been very influential. Each year, through the summer, he organizes groups of Christians who love Israel to volunteer here. As he is a big believer in family values, many of the volunteers come with their entire families, including the young and the elderly. In recent years, at the request of the Regional Council, the Har Bracha settlement has hosted the volunteers on a hilltop near our community. From this base, the volunteers set out to work in vineyards and orchards throughout the Shomron.
Because of our difficult history with Christians, and due to concerns about possible missionizing, I felt it necessary to meet with Tommy. I wanted to have an upfront discussion with him about precisely what his positions were. At the same time, I wanted to convey a Jewish position without kowtowing or obsequiousness.
In the course of our conversation, I asked him: “If a Jew were to come before you and ask you whether it is better to be a Jew or a Christian what would you tell him?” He responded: “I would tell him to be a Jew!” Tommy added that he had not always thought this way. Originally, like other Christians, he was interested in everyone becoming Christian, but eventually he realized that this earlier position was the result of ignorance. Now, following his exposure to the Jewish renaissance in the Land ofIsrael, he wishes for all Jews to observe the Torah and mitzvoth.
I asked Tommy what led him to dedicate his life to bringing Christian volunteers toIsrael. He told me that he read Yeshayahu 61:5: “Strangers shall stand and pasture your flocks; aliens shall be your plowmen and vine-trimmers.” This greatly moved him, and he said to himself: “Maybe I can be the one who is privileged to fulfill this holy verse!” Ever since then, he has encouraged people to visit Israel and to help Jews work the land.
Every summer Tommy brings hundreds of volunteers, some for a week and some for longer periods. They bring us greetings of peace and friendship from tens of millions of Americans who love us, and when they return home they serve as loyal ambassadors for Israel.
For the Sake of Heaven
When I began to look into this issue a number of years ago, I publicly declared that I would not accept any money for myself or my yeshiva from Christian friends of Israel, so that I could research the subject without a conflict of interest. I also made a statement to that effect in my column about two years ago.
In the meantime, at the initiative of a Jewish go-between, the Har Bracha settlement received such a donation, 120,000 shekels which it used towards building a park that cost over half a million shekels. When I heard about this, I asked the secretary general of Har Bracha to do me a favor and return the money. This was not because I felt there was any halakhic problem with accepting it, but because I wanted our positive attitude towards Christian philo-Semites to be purely for the sake of heaven. The righteous secretary general apologized and said he had not thought I had included the settlement in my commitment. (In truth, while I am the rabbi of the settlement, I cannot make commitments for it.) To my delight, he nevertheless responded positively to my request and returned the entire amount.
Hopes of Redemption
Sometimes I see these honored guests walking on our roads and paths, and I am filled with great love; I am deeply moved and have to hold back tears. How beautiful are these people, who volunteer enthusiastically, crossing oceans and continents to come express their wonderful connection with us. How they shine with joy at being privileged to see the miraculous return to Zion, to walk on holy ground, and to contribute to making the desert bloom. Perhaps they are the pioneers who begin to fulfill the words of the prophecy:
In the end of days, the Mountain of the Lord’s House shall stand firm above the mountains and tower above the hills, and all the nations shall stream towards it. Many peoples shall go and say: “Let us go up to the Mountain of the Lord, to the House of the God of Jacob, that He may instruct us in His ways, and that we may walk in His paths.” For Torah shall come forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. He will judge among the nations and arbitrate for the many peoples. They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not take up sword against nation, and they shall never again know war (Yeshayahu 2:2-4).
For related articles by Rabbi Melamed, see “Christians Who Love Israel” and “Make His Deeds Known Among the Nations.”
 This article appears in the ‘Basheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

Fasting on Yom Kippur

The Mitzvah to Fast
It is a positive mitzvah to fast on Yom Kippur, as it is written: “[Each year] on the 10th day of the 7th month you must fast…this is because on this day you shall have all your sins atoned, so that you will be cleansed. Before God you will be cleansed of all your sins” (Leviticus 16:29-30). One who transgresses and does not fast, in addition to negating a positive commandment, also transgresses a negative commandment.
And anyone who eats even one small sesame seed, or drinks even one drop of water, transgresses a Torah prohibition.
A Sick Person for Whom Fasting is Not Life-Threatening is Obligated to Fast
A person who suffers pain from his illness – as long as his life is not in danger, it is forbidden for him to eat or drink anything. This is because fasting on Yom Kippur is a Torah obligation, and therefore, only pikuach nefesh (the preservation of life) overrides it.
This is the difference between Yom Kippur and the other fasts – namely, on the fast of Yom Kippur, ill people must also fast because it is a Torah prohibition; on the fast of Tisha B’Av, ill people are exempt from fasting; and on the minor fasts, pregnant and nursing mothers are also exempt.
Therefore, individuals sick with the flu, angina and the like – since their lives are not in danger, they are obligated to fast on Yom Kippur. It is preferable for an ill person to lie in bed all day and not go to the synagogue, than to eat or drink anything, because the main mitzvah of the day is fasting, for by doing so, God purifies Israel from its sins. And when an ill person is lying in bed, if possible, he should try to pray to the best of his ability, and if reading from the prayer book is too difficult, he should try to pray in his heart and move his lips in private prayers – but not to eat or drink anything.
Swallowing Medicine
While it is permitted for a sick person suffering from his illness to swallow pills – provided the pills do not taste good, and one takes care to swallow them without water. A person who cannot swallow pills without water should add a bit of soap to the water, thus causing it to taste bad, and with this water, swallow the pill.
Although we have learned that it is a Torah prohibition to eat or drink even the smallest amount, this refers specifically to something edible, but a medicine which is not intended to be eaten, is not considered food. True, there is a Rabbinical prohibition to eat or drink even something inedible (S.A. 612:6-8), but when the intention is medicinal, and not for the purposes of eating or drinking, there is also no Rabbinical prohibition.
Thus, the prohibition of taking medicine on Yom Kippur is equivalent to that ofShabbat, i.e., it is forbidden for one who experiences slight pain to take medicine, but if one is mitzta’er (distressed), it is permitted to take medicine (P’ninei Halacha, Shabbat 28:4-5, footnote 3).
Individuals required to take medicine on a daily basis, are also allowed to do so onYom Kippur.
Headache Sufferers
If the fast causes one great pain, he is permitted to take pills to relieve the pain. Similarly, individuals suffering from intense headaches due to not drinking coffee are permitted to take pills containing caffeine, or pills to relieve headaches.
In addition, someone who knows that the fast is likely to cause a painful attack, such as a migraine sufferer, is permitted to take pills in advance to avert the onset of a painful attack.
A Dangerously Ill Person
Someone who is dangerously ill and the fast is liable to result in his death, is commanded to drink and eat as needed, because pikuach nefesh overrides themitzvah of fasting, as is the case for all other mitzvoth from the Torah (Yoma 85b). A person in a state of safek sakana (questionable risk of death) and is machmir(stringent) with himself not to drink or eat – sins, because he transgresses the commandment from the Torah to guard one’s life.
The intention is not merely in a situation in which, as a result of fasting, a significant percentage of sick individuals will die, rather, as long as there is a possibility the fast will cause an ill person’s death or weaken his ability to cope with his dangerous illness, it is a mitzvah for him to drink and eat as necessary. Similarly, if the fast is liable to hasten the death of a terminally ill person on the verge of dying, it is amitzvah for him to eat and drink as needed, because in order to save life – even for short period of time – it is permissible to eat and drink on Yom Kippur.
Not to Be Overly Concerned 
On the other hand, however, one should not be overly concerned, for if we worry about sakanat nefashot (endangering life) over every common illness, in effect, we abandon the halakha which determines that a sick person is obligated to fast onYom Kippur.
Not only that, but if we overly exaggerate and worry about remote dangers, we would have to hospitalize all sick people, prohibit all non-essential means of transportation for fear of accidents, and of course, prohibit all types of hikes and excursions, and so forth.
Rather, the general rule is: Any danger that people usually treat urgently – investing time and effort – such as rushing a sick person to a hospital, is considered sakanat nefashot, and to prevent it, it is a mitzvah to desecrate Shabbat, and drink and eat on Yom Kippur. But dangers in which people do not rush and invest time and resources to take care of, is not considered sakanat nefashot.
The Greatest Mistake in Eating and Drinking in Shiurim (Measurements)
A common and widespread misconception among doctors and the ill is the belief that the advice to drink l’shiurim (in measured quantities) is sort of a middle-path, suitable for sick individuals for whom the fast is not life-threatening. In truth, however, drinking even a little bit is a Torah prohibition, and a person whose life is not endangered as a result of fasting, is forbidden to drink anything.
Rather, the point about drinking l’shiurim is that even when a dangerously ill person needs and is permitted to eat and drink on Yom Kippur, in the opinion of Ramban, it is preferable to eat and drink l’shiurim, so as to reduce to some extent the severity of the prohibition, because one who eats or drinks less than a shiur, although he has transgressed a Torah prohibition, one is not obligated to bring a sin offering and is not punished with karet (having one’s soul cut off from Israel). However, manyRishonim including Rif and Rambam do not mention this instruction, because in their opinion, a dangerously ill person is allowed to drink and eat l’chatchila (from the outset) without any restriction, and this was also the opinion of a number of Achronim(Natziv, Ohr Sameach and others). Nevertheless, the Shulchan Aruch determined that, if possible, it is preferable to drink and eat less than a shiur (618:7-8).  All this, however, is on the condition the sick person’s life is in danger.
What is Eating and Drinking in Shiurim?
The shiur for drinking is k’mlo peev (a cheekful of liquid), each person according to the size of his mouth. The shiur for eating is k’kotevet hagasa (a type of large date). In other words, eating and drinking less than a shiur means drinking less than k’mlo peev, and eating less than k’kotevet, which is 30 ml (S.A. 612:1-5, 8-10). The interval between drinking and eating is approximately nine minutes.
Diabetics and a Woman After Giving Birth
However, when there is reason to believe that drinking and eating in shiurim is liable to cause the slightest negligence in the strengthening of the dangerously ill person, he must drink and eat normally. For example, when a yoledet (a woman after giving birth) is tired, it is best for her to drink normally so that she can sleep uninterrupted, and not have to remain awake in order to drink in shiurim.
Diabetics who have not found a reliable solution for their situation must be very careful about this. If there is concern that due to eating in shiurim they might be negligent and not eat as needed, they must eat normally.
Praying in a Minyan as Opposed to Eating in Shiurim
It is preferable for diabetics who need to eat on Yom Kippur to eat more than ak’shiur at one time and pray in synagogue, than to remain at home and eat in shiurim. There are two reasons for this: First, eating in shiurim is a hiddur (enhancement), and praying in a minyan is more important. Second, if ill people are required to remain at home in order to eat in shiurim, some will nevertheless go to synagogue, intending to eat there in shiurim privately, but in practice, due to various reasons, will forget to eat as necessary, and as a result, become unconscious, faint, and God forbid, die. Diabetics have been known to die on Yom Kippur because of this reason.
Pregnant Women
Pregnant and nursing women are obligated to fast on Yom Kippur (Pesachim 54b; S.A.617:1). Even on Tisha B’Av, pregnant and nursing women are obligated to fast,kal v’chomer (all the more so) on Yom Kippur, whose requirement comes from the Torah.
There are some poskim (Jewish law authorities) who wanted to permit pregnant women to drink in shiurim, because in their opinion, women have become weaker nowadays, and fasting may cause them to miscarry. However, from studies conducted in Israel and the around the world, it was revealed that fasting does not increase the risk of miscarriage. Only in rare cases is fasting liable to induce labor in the ninth month of pregnancy, and in any case, this does not entail sakanat nefashot. Also, there is no evidence to the claim that nowadays women have gotten weaker. On the contrary – today, people are healthier than in the past, both due to the diversity and abundance of food, and because of medical advancement. This is also reflected in the rise of life expectancy by tens of years. Consequently, there is no room to be more lenient than in the past, and the halakha remains firm that pregnant and nursing women are obligated to fast (Tzitz Eliezer 17:20, footnote 4; Nishmat Avraham 617:1).
Thus, even a pregnant woman suffering from vomiting, high blood pressure, low hemoglobin (iron), and various ailments, is obligated to fast on Yom Kippur, and it is forbidden for her to drink in shiurim. Only in a special case where the pregnancy is at risk and a God-fearing doctor orders her, is a pregnant woman permitted to drink, and then, it is preferable for her to drink in shiurim.
Nursing Women
A nursing woman is obligated to fast on Yom Kippur (Pesachim 54b; S.A. 617:1). Although nursing causes fasting to be difficult, because it results in a further loss of fluids, there is no danger to the mother. The baby as well is not in danger, for if its’ mother is the type of woman whose milk does not decrease by fasting, the infant is not affected by the fast at all. And if its’ mother is the type of woman whose milk decreases due to fasting, she can supplement by feeding her baby oatmeal or water with glucose, and thus, the infant will not be affected by the fast.
Some poskim wanted to be lenient concerning nursing women, because in their opinion, weakness has descended upon the world, and today, without nursing, babies are at risk – however, their statements are extremely puzzling. For although surely there are positive benefits to nursing and mother’s milk, and many doctors encourage nursing, nevertheless, there are many women who do not nurse at all, and we have not witnessed doctors waging a war in support of women continuing to nursing in order to save their children for fear of mortal danger. If, in the past, when numerous babies died in their first year of life, and there were no good substitutes for mother’s milk, the clear instruction was that a pregnant woman was obligated to fast – even onTisha B’Av – how is it conceivable that nowadays, when there are good substitutes, suddenly, this issue has become one of pikuach nefesh?!
Although this is clearly the halakha, one should not object to those who naively rely on rabbis who are lenient. But in regards to rabbis who instruct women to be lenient – the bewilderment is great.
Quite often, it seems that behind such opinions lies a worldview which ignores the positive aspects of modern living. According to their opinion, the past was wonderful, people were strong, pregnant and nursing women were amazingly healthy. Today, however, we are miserable, and can only cry and sulk over our bitter fate. In reality, though, our situation today is infinitely better than conditions were a hundred years ago. Life expectancy has increased dramatically, the mortality rate of infants dying within their first year of life is extremely low, and pregnant and nursing women are much healthier. In the past, twenty percent of women died in childbirth; today, not even one percent dies. Incidentally, this is the same outlook that believes we shouldn’t thank God for the In-gathering of the Exiles and the establishment of the State of Israel – as if the grief-stricken galut (exile) was superior.
When is it Permitted to be Lenient?
However, when a baby is weak and prone to illness and the doctor thinks he is especially in need of mother’s milk, and there is reasonable concern that as a result of the fast, the nursing mother’s milk will stop or significantly diminish – on orders of a God-fearing doctor, she should drink in shiurim (O.C. 617:1). However, this is a very rare case, because if on the day before the fast, a nursing woman drinks a lot of water, almost certainly her milk will not decrease as a result of fasting.
It is preferable for her to start drinking more three days before the fast and get more sleep, and thus, her milk supply will increase. In addition to this, she can express milk for a number of meals a few days before the fast, and thus, the baby will have plenty of milk on the fast. Based on the experience of several women, it is advisable to alternately skip two feedings in the afternoon and early evening, and instead, give the baby a substitute, and thus the fast will pass more easily for both mother and baby.
This article appears in the “Basheva” newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

Selichot for Clal Yisrael

Custom of Reciting Selichot for the Salvation of the Clal        
Since the times of the Geonim (589-1038), many Jews have had the custom of rising in ashmoret ha’boker (early hours of the morning) during Aserit Yamei Teshuva (the Ten Days of Repentance) to recite Selichot (penitential poems and prayers). Contrary to the belief of many who think the objective of Selichot is to pray about one’s individual life, the main intention is to pray for Clal Yisrael – to awaken toteshuva (repentance), to beg God to forgive us for our sins and have mercy on His people in their exile and tribulations; not to glance at our transgressions and sins, but rather, that God should remember the covenant He made with our forefathers, and with us; remember the binding of Isaac, and the sacrifice of all the holy Jews who gave their lives to sanctify His name; and to pray for the Ingathering of the Exiles, the building of the Land and Jerusalem, the building of the Holy temple, and the return of the Shechina (Divine Presence) to Zion.
This is always the best approach for an individual – to participate in the prayers of thetzibor (general public), and redouble one’s prayers over Clal Yisrael, the dwelling of the Shechina, and the sanctification of His name in the world. Precisely in this manner, one’s personal prayers will also be accepted.
The Prophetic Origin     
Thus, we have found that in times of trouble, the Prophets aroused Israel to gather in fasting and prayer, begging God to spare His people and land, as it is written:
Blow the shofar in Zion, sanctify a fast, call a solemn assembly: gather the people, sanctify the congregation, assemble the elders, gather the children, and those who suck the breasts: let the bridegroom go forth from his chamber, and the bride out of her pavilion. Let the priests, the ministers of the Lord, weep between the porch and the alter, and let them say, Spare your people, O Lord, and give not your heritage to reproach, that the nations should rule over them: why should they say among the peoples, Where is their God? Then the Lord was zealous for his land, and pitied his people” (Joel 2:15-18).
When are Selichot Recited?
In the times of the Geonim the custom was to recite Selichot during the Ten Days of Repentance; this was the minhag of the two great yeshivot in Babylon, and was also the prevalent custom during the period of the Rishonim (1000-1450) (Rambam, Hilchot Teshuva 3:4). In a few places, the custom was to recite Selichot all of the month of Elul.
Sephardic Custom
Towards the end of the period of the Rishonim, Sephardic communities accepted the custom of reciting Selichot all of the month of Elul and the Ten Days of Repentance (S.A. 581:1). This is because all of these days are worthy of repentance, as we have seen that on Rosh Chodesh Elul, Moshe Rabbeinu ascended Mount Sinai to ask forgiveness for Israel’s sin of the Golden Calf, and on Yom Kippur, God answered: “I grant forgiveness as you have requested.”
Ashkenazi Custom
In Ashkenaz, the accepted custom was to begin reciting Selichot on the Moetzei Shabbat before Rosh Hashana, provided there were four days on which to recite them before Rosh Hashana.
Various explanations were cited for this (M.B. 581:6). However, I will mention the reason cited in the book ‘Leket Yosher’ (in the name of Trumat Hadeshen), thatMoetzei Shabbat is an able time for Selichot because on Shabbat “everyone is accustomed to study Torah…” seeing as Shabbat and the Torah are spouses, “and on Shabbat, Israel is free from work and study Torah. Therefore, it is good to start onYom Rishon (Moetzei Shabbat), because the people are happy for having learned Torah on Shabbat, and also because of Oneg Shabbat, and as was said in the Talmud: “The Divine Presence rests upon man neither through gloom, nor through laziness, save through a matter of joy in connection with a mitzvah…”(Shabbat 30b).
According to this, although the best time to recite Selichot is in the early hours of the morning, on the first day there is an advantage to recite them on Moetzei Shabbat after chatzot (halakhic mid-night), while still dressed in Shabbat clothes.
At What Time of Day are Selichot Recited?
The best time to recite Selichot is in the early hours of the morning, i.e., towards the end of the night, because this is a time of compassion and grace, a time of anticipation just before the appearance of daylight and the revelation of the word of God in the world. At that very moment in time everyone is asleep, the world is quiet and unpolluted from thoughts and evil deeds, and prayer radiates from the depths of the heart, penetrates all barriers, and is accepted. At any rate, after chatzot lyla, the fitting time to recite Selichot begins, because that’s when anticipation of daylight starts, and it is a time of favor and compassion.
In recent generations, people have become used to going to sleep late at night, and the regular time for waking up is between 6:00 and 7:00 A.M. – approximately two hours after ashmoret ha’boker. If people were to rise at ashmoret, they would be tired all day long, and their work and studies are likely to be affected. Consequently, today many people tend to get up for Selichot about an hour, or half an hour, before the time they usually pray Shacharit. And although dawn has already risen, bediavad (post factum) the time is still suitable for reciting Selichot. If they are able to reciteSelichot after chatzot lyla, it is preferable.
Are Selichot Obligatory?
Although the Rishonim did not fix the reciting of Selichot as mandatory, this is the minhag of Israel. However, someone who finds it difficult to wake up for Selichot is not obligated to do so during the month of Elul. During the Ten Days of Repentance, one should be more meticulous in reciting Selichot, because these days are more able for repentance and atonement (see, Rosh Hashana 18a; Rambam, Teshuva 2:6).
Selichot Opposed to Fatigue at Work and Study
Someone who cannot go to sleep early, and waking up for Selichot will result in fatigue and an inability to fulfill his duties at work – it is preferable for him not to wake up for Selichot even during the Tens Days of Repentance. Instead, he should try to increase his reciting of Tehillim, and if he wants, during the day he can recite the sections of Selichot that an individual is permitted to say.
The standard instruction is that it even for a Torah scholar accustomed to studying diligently, it is proper for him to devote the required amount of time to recite Selichot (Rokach 209; Birkei Yosef and Shaarei Teshuva 581:1).  It is the custom in all yeshivot to recite Selichot, even though it comes at the expense of learning. However, if rising early causes one to lose more learning time than the time dedicated in reciting Selichot, because afterwards, the change in schedule will cause lack of concentration in his studies, it is preferable not to rise for Selichot.
The Wording of Selichot
Since our Sages did not explicitly establish the reciting of Selichot, accordingly, Selichot lack a standard nusach (wording), and every community added its own pleas and poems. Nevertheless, there is a general framework used in all the comminities, as appears in the siddur of Rabbi Amram Gaon, with the reciting of the Yud Gimmel Midot (Thirteen Attributes of Mercy) being the focal point of the prayer.
Although the recitation of piyutim (poems) should not be cancelled on a regular basis, nevertheless, when the worshippers are short on time, they can skip some of them and say the main Selichot, making an effort to recite those Selichot which arouse one to greater teshuva.
Similarly, when teachers see that students find it hard to concentrate on all the Selichot, they may rearrange the order so the students can have better kavana (intention). And when it is necessary for members of different communities to pray together, and they wish to recite Selichot jointly, they can arrange a combined version, as Rabbi Avraham Gisser shlita, and Rabbi Shmuel Shapira shlita have done.
Selichot Nowadays Should Be Similar to the Prayers of Ezra
After being privileged to witness the developing process of the In-gathering of the Exiles and the establishment of the State of Israel, we should be aroused to recite Selichot with even more intensity, requesting that God continue having mercy on us, return us to Him in complete repentance, and redeem us completely.
Similar to our present situation, the olei Bavel (immigrants from Babylon) in the times of the first return to Zion, also faced serious spiritual difficulties, and by repenting, merited to build the Second Temple. As in the words of Ezra who, upon immigrating to Israel from Babylon, found that many Jewish inhabitants had taken foreign women for themselves, and the ministers and their deputies were underhanded. When he heard this, he rent his garments, plucked his hair, knelt down on his knees, spread out his hands, and prayed:
And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled. Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the faithlessness of them of the captivity; and I sat appalled until the evening offering. And at the evening offering I arose up from my fasting, even with my garment and my mantle rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the Lord my God; and I said: ‘O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to you, my God; for our iniquities are increased over our head, and our guiltiness is grown up unto the heavens. Since the days of our fathers we have been exceeding guilty unto this day; and for our iniquities have we, our kings, and our priests, been delivered into the hand of the kings of the lands, to the sword, to captivity, and to spoiling, and to confusion of face, as it is this day. And now for a little moment grace has been shown from the Lord our God, to leave us a remnant to escape, and to give us a nail in His holy place, that our God may lighten our eyes, and give us a little reviving in our bondage. For we are bondmen; yet our God has not forsaken us in our bondage, but has extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a reviving, to set up the house of our God, and to repair the ruins thereof, and to give us a fence in Judah and in Jerusalem.And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? For we have forsaken your commandments, which you have commanded by your servants the prophets, saying: The land, unto which you go to possess it, is an unclean land through the uncleanness of the peoples of the lands, through their abominations, wherewith they have filled it from one end to another with their filthiness. Now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their prosperity for ever; that you may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever. And after all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great guilt, seeing that you our God has punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and has given us such a remnant, shall we again break your commandments, and make marriages with the peoples that do these abominations? Would you not be angry with us till you had consumed us, so that there should be no remnant, nor any to escape? O Lord, the God of Israel, you are righteous; for we are left a remnant that is escaped, as it is this day; behold, we are before you in our guiltiness; for none can stand before you because of this” (Ezra 9:3-15).
Ezra’s sorrow, fasting and prayers aroused the nation to repent, and thanks to this, the Second Temple was built and stood for hundreds of years. However, failing to repent completely, seeing as many Jews remained in Babylonian exile and did not immigrate to Israel, the Shechina (Divine Presence) did not dwell in the Second Temple as it had done in the First Temple, and ultimately, it too, was destroyed due to our sins.
Is the Wording of Selichot Suitable for Our Times?
Indeed, in the wording of Selichot there are sentences fitting for times of galut(exile), and certain people find it difficult to identify with the content. Some even claim there is a bit of falsehood in reciting them today.
But when we view Am Yisrael as one people having lived in all generations, with each one of us really linked to all the Jews who lived in all the generations and in all the various countries, well then, each and every one of us was actually along with all the Jews in every exile, and all the terrible tribulations. Along with them we suffered severe degradation, till we almost lost hope. We were together with the holy Jews and martyrs in all the forced conversions; in the Crusades and the Inquisition; in the Muslim killings, and the Chmielnicki pogroms of 1648-1650; and the last and most horrendous of all – the dreadful Holocaust, which ended barely seventy years ago, with hundreds of thousands of survivors who underwent the death camps and ghettos still living among us. How can we be at ease, saying that the Selichot supplications are not suitable for us, when the world is still full of wicked people who openly declare their desire to continue the work of the Nazis? Thus, the text of Selichot can be recited out of deep sense of identification.
This article appeared in ‘Basheva’ and was translated from Hebrew.