Category Archives: כללי

The Laws of ‘Brit Mila’

The First Commandment 

It is no coincidence that the very first commandment that the first  Jew in history was commanded to fulfill was the commandment of  religious circumcision, or in Hebrew, “brit milah.” This fact tells us something  about the value of this particular precept. And though the commandment  to procreate is mentioned in the Torah before the commandment of  circumcision, it is not directed specifically at the People of Israel;  rather, the injunction to procreate includes all of the living  creatures in the world – man, animals, and fish. The commandment  of circumcision, though, is the first commandment directed  specifically toward the Jewish people. And just as the first  commandment which our patriarch Abraham fulfilled was that of  circumcision, so too, the first commandment that each and every Jewish male  who reaches the tender age of eight days old fulfills is that of  circumcision. Indeed, this obligation symbolizes, more than any other  religious duty, the eternal bond between the Jewish People and their  God, a bond which is sealed upon a Jew’s very flesh. 

Through the commandment of circumcision we proclaim that it is not easy to  be Jewish. One must pay with his very blood for being Jewish, as the  verse which we recite in the course of the circumcision ceremony  states: “Through your blood shall you live” (Ezekiel 16:6). The mighty  task which Israel took upon itself is to reveal to a world full of darkness  and heresy, that there is a Creator and Overseer; to inform the  cruel and destructive nations that the true purpose of life is  to pursue kindness and show benevolence, and to lead a life of purity  and morality in a world of lies and hypocrisy. Accomplishing all of  this is no easy task. It is a job which will not be concluded until the  world is completely rectified – and the road is full of hardships and sacrifice. The act of removing the foreskin, which symbolizes the moral defect that attached itself to the world,  involves blood and pain – but there is no other path. For the only  other alternative would be to compromise and to become demoralized in  the impurity of the cruel and destructive nations, hence losing  our special value and national identity. 

From every page in the history of the Jewish people, from the  destruction of the Temple until the Holocaust, we learn that our  mission is a difficult one involving genuine self-sacrifice. This is  our destiny and responsibility. 

By way of ‘brit mila’ we declare to the entire world that we, the Jewish  people, continue to be firm in our faith and ready to sacrifice  ourselves until we have reached the fulfillment of all of our  upright and just aspirations. 

The Most Important Commandment 

The classic code of Jewish Law, the “Shulchan Arukh,” dedicates an  entire chapter to clarifying and emphasizing the fact that the  commandment of ‘brit milah’ is the most important of all practical,  positive commandments. Generally, each chapter of the “Shulchan Arukh”  is made up of a number of subdivisions, but chapter 260 of Yoreh Deah  contains only one law, which is entirely dedicated to emphasizing the  importance of ‘brit milah.’ And this is what is written there: “It is  a positive commandment for the father to circumcise his son, and this  commandment is of greater importance than all other positive  commandments.” 

It is no coincidence that this particular commandment is embellished  with great adornment by all Jews, regardless of affiliation to  movement or organization. Even if the Jew’s natural bond to some of  the commandments has been weakened, when it comes to ‘brit milah’ there is  a general consensus. This agreement is equivalent to the testimony of  a hundred witnesses regarding the true feeling of each Jew regarding  Jewish faith and the Torah. Incidentally, there are a number of other  central commandments regarding which there is wide general acceptance  among Jews. For example: love for one’s fellow, honoring parents,  honesty, the saving of life, and settlement of the Land of Israel. In  fact, if one takes into consideration the entire Torah and its 613  commandments, one finds that there is no clear line dividing  “religious” and “secular” Jews. In practice, there are many non-  observant Jews who fulfill abundant Torah commandments with great  adoration, while there are those who are termed “religious,” who,  in fact, fail to perform many of the commandments. However, the  precept of ‘brit milah’ is undoubtedly the most widely embraced of the  commandments, for more than any other ritual, it gives expression  to a sense of belonging to the Jewish people – the nation which has  been chosen for the task of revealing Divine ideals in the world. 

Yet, despite the great importance of this commandment, one must be  aware of the fact that a Jew is one whose mother is Jewish; and even  if he is not circumcised and he does not appear to be Jewish, if his  mother is Jewish, he too is Jewish. It is important for us to remember  this fact, for, lately, many uncircumcised Jews have been immigrating  to Israel, and there are some who mistakenly claim that any Jew who  has not been circumcised is like a non-Jew, and must convert in order  to join the Jewish people. The fact of the matter is that whoever was  born to a Jewish mother, or converted to Judaism according to Jewish  law, is Jewish. Judaism begins from the soul, from the fact that the  Almighty chose us from among all the nations and infused us with a  soul capable of giving expression to the Divine values of the Torah in  the world. The commandments are the instruments and the means through  which Judaism appears in the world, and the first of these  commandments is that of ‘brit milah.’ One who does not fulfill Torah  commandments fails to reveal and express the hallowed  Jewish soul within him. 

All of this is true regarding one who was born to a Jewish mother. A  non-Jew, though, who desires to join the Jewish people through  conversion, and thus establish a new Halakhic fact – i.e., that from  this time onward his offspring will be members of the Jewish people –  must accept upon himself the responsibility of fulfilling all of the  commandments. Our Sages teach that the ultimate source of the soul a  non-Jew who takes upon himself to convert to Judaism, is in fact  Jewish; yet, in order to get to this source, the convert must accept  upon himself to fulfill all of the commandments. In other words, one  who was born Jewish possesses a Jewish soul, and even if he does not  observe the commandments, his spiritual nature does not change; but,  regarding a convert, only the foundation of his soul is Jewish, and,  therefore, only by formally accepting upon himself the commandments  can a Jewish soul reside within him. True, these matters cannot be  proven scientifically, but I believe that a broad and all-encompassing  examination of the history of the Jewish people and of those converts  who did not earnestly accept upon themselves the Torah commandments  can help us understand these profound ideas. 

Abraham’s Offspring


Regarding the question of the circumcision of Abraham’s other children  besides Isaac, we find an interesting discrepancy among the early  authorities of Jewish law. When it comes to the rest of the nations of  the world there is agreement among rabbinic arbiters that they should  not be circumcised, for circumcision is a commandment incumbent upon the  children of Abraham alone. The source of this obligation lies in the  verse, “And you must keep my covenant (“brit”); you and your seed  after you for all generations” (Genesis 17:9). And our Sages of the  Talmud explain that the intention here is to Abraham’s seed alone –  “you and your seed” but not other people. Ishmael is not considered  the seed of Abraham, for it is written elsewhere (Genesis 21:12): “It  is through Isaac that you will gain posterity.” Esau, the son of  Isaac, is also not considered the seed of Abraham, for it is written,  “It is through Isaac that you will gain posterity” – of Isaac, but not  all of Isaac’s seed. In other words, only a portion of Isaac’s seed is  called the “seed of Abraham,” and that is the portion which was born  of the offspring of Jacob, and they are the ones commanded to fulfill  the commandment of ‘brit milah.’ 

Yet, because Abraham had other children besides Isaac and Ishmael – as  it is written, after the death of our Matriarch Sarah (Genesis 25:1):  “And Abraham married another woman whose name was Keturah,” and she  bore him six children – it is necessary to clarify the law regarding  them. According to Rashi (Sanhedrin 59b), even though all of Abraham’s  sons were commanded to perform circumcision, their sons – that is, the  offspring of Abraham’s additional children – are not bound by this  commandment, and it belongs solely to the Jews. 

According to the Rambam, though, Ishmael’s offspring was freed from  this commandment because the verse “It is through Isaac that you will  gain posterity” removes the seed of Ishmael from the category of  Abraham’s seed. The offspring of Keturah, though, had not yet been  born at the time when that verse was stated to Abraham. Concerning  them, then, there is no indication in the scriptures that they are to  be separated from Abraham’s seed. Therefore, even though they are  not Jews – for they are not progeny of the Patriarchs Isaac and Jacob  – they are none the less obligated to perform circumcision as the seed  of Abraham. Rambam also rules that, because the offspring of Keturah  have in the meantime become intermixed with the offspring of Ishmael,  and Keturah constitutes the majority, all of them are bound by this  commandment (Hilkhot Melakhim 10:8). 

It is worth mentioning here that there is a unique bond between the  statute of ‘brit milah’ and the Land of Israel, to the point where it  is an historical fact that nations which are not circumcised are not  capable of settling the Land of Israel. Our Sages even teach (Zohar  vol. 2, 23:1) that whoever is circumcised can inherit the land.  Indeed, in the days of Joshua, before the Children of Israel began  their conquest of Israel, all of the men who had not yet performed  ‘brit milah’ were called upon to do so. Only after this were the Israelites able to conquer the land. In addition, our Sages foresaw long ago that the Ishmaelites would gain control of the  Holy Land for an extended period of time, while the land was barren  and desolate. The reason for this is that the Ishmaelites practice  circumcision, and our Sages said they will therefore succeed in  delaying the return of Israel to its land. But because their ‘milah’  is itself “desolate”, i.e., worthless and defective (they do not  circumcise on the eighth day, and they also do not remove the thin  layer of skin, and whoever circumcises without removing the membrane  of the corona, it is as if he did not circumcise whatsoever. Therefore the Land  of Israel will remain barren and desolate while in their possession,  and in the end, the Land of Israel will become the possession of the  People of Israel. 

Removal of the Foreskin


When it comes to the commandment of ‘brit milah’ there arises a  justified question: Who are we to make adjustments which run counter  to nature? If man is born naturally with a foreskin, is it not best to  simply leave things as they are? And if the foreskin is so abhorrent  that God himself desires that we remove it, why did He create it to  begin with?  The truth of the matter is that this question was already asked ages  ago by the Rabbis of the Midrash (see Midrash Tanchuma, Tazriah 5):  Turnus Rufus, the wicked Roman general once challenged Rabbi Akiva,  asking him: “If the Almighty God so desires circumcision, why does the  newborn not enter the world already circumcised?” The Talmud also  tells us that on another occasion Turnus Rufus asked Rabbi Akiva a  similar question (Bava Batra 10a): “If the Almighty loves the poor –  for we see that he has commanded to give them charity – why does He  not provide for them Himself?” To this Rabbi Akiva responded that the  Almighty does not provide for them, in order that we ourselves are  allowed to merit fulfilling the commandment. In other words, certainly  God can provide for the poor, but He created the world with deficiency  so that man is granted the privilege of taking part in the perfection  of creation. The same is true regarding the foreskin. Certainly God  could have created man circumcised, without foreskin, and without any  evil inclinations, but this was not God’s desire in creating man in  His image. The desire was for man to be God’s partner in the creation  of the world. 

This is why the Creator left part of the creation incomplete – in  order that we complete the work. And in order to complete it, one must also  perform kind deeds like giving charity, and driving away the negative  tendencies in man’s nature. 

The foreskin represents the undesirable aspects of man’s nature. The  foreskin, which is skin that the body has no need for, represents  indulgence rather than necessity, the fleeting appetite which leaves  only a bad taste in its wake. It is the opposite of true love, which  constitutes the foundation of life. Removing the foreskin initiates a  process of individual refinement, and with the beginning of this  process a covenant is forged between the newborn child and the eternal  nation. The Jewish nation is forever being refined and made pure, and  together with it, the entire universe. 

On the Eighth Day – Even on Sabbath 

It is written in the Torah (Leviticus 12:3): “On the eighth day, the  child’s foreskin shall be circumcised.” The Torah says that the  commandment to circumcise the child must be carried out on the eighth  day, no sooner, and no later. And it is so important that the brit take  place on the eighth day that even if the eighth day falls on the  Sabbath, the brit supersedes the day of rest, and the circumcision is  performed. This is how it is done: Whatever is needed for the brit  milah must be prepared before the Sabbath, while the milah itself is  carried out on the Sabbath, for the Torah commands us to circumcise on  the eighth day even if it falls on the Sabbath. And clearly the brit  should not be delayed for other reasons, for example, in order to  allow relatives to arrive. Indeed, even if the father himself is  abroad, the brit must go ahead without him. 

Regarding the eighth day, Rabbi Yehudah Loew, the Maharal of Prague,  explains that the nature of the physical world is such that it lacks  perfection. It is limited and deficient. In order to attain the  spiritual level which suits the nature of our soul, we must perfect  it. This is the role of the brit mila. And it must necessarily be  performed on the eighth day, because, seeing as the world was created in  seven days, the natural world is characterized by the number seven.  After this, on the eighth day, we ascend to a level beyond nature. 

There is one reason alone for which we postpone the brit: illness of  the baby. In this regard we are very cautious. And if there is even  the slightest suspicion of endangerment to the baby’s life, the brit  must be postponed until the complete recovery of the baby. Under no  circumstances is it permitted to attempt to be stringent in this  matter. According to the Shulchan Arukh, one must be very cautious in  these matters, for it is forbidden to circumcise a baby who is  suspected of being ill, because protecting life takes precedence over  all. It is possible to circumcise the baby at some later date, but it  is impossible to ever replace even a single Jewish soul (Shulchan  Arukh, Yoreh Deah 263:1). 

In the event of a delayed Brit Mila due to danger, one waits until the  baby has healed completely. If the illness has taken hold of the  baby’s entire body, one must wait seven days after recovery before  performing the circumcision and then go ahead with the brit  immediately (Shulchan Arukh, Yoreh Deah 262:2). In the case of a  postponed brit which falls on the Sabbath, it is delayed until Sunday,  for only a brit which is performed in its proper time – i.e., on the  eighth day – takes precedence over the Sabbath. A brit which has at  any rate been postponed does not override the Sabbath (Shulchan Arukh,  Yoreh Deah 266:2). 

This article was taken from Rabbi Melamed’s series of Jewish law books “Peninei Halakha”, and translated from Hebrew.  

Abortion of Fetuses with Severe Abnormalities in Jewish Law

A fetus is considered a living entity in regards to certain laws, but there is no penalty of death for taking its life * Is the prohibition of aborting a fetus derived from the severe prohibition of murder, or the prohibition of causing unnecessary physical harm to the human body? * The dispute among contemporary poskim (Jewish law arbiters) about whether it is permitted to abort a fetus suffering from serious illnesses * The opinion of those poskim who hold that abortion is permitted only when the mother’s life is in danger * The opinion of poskim who hold that abortion is forbidden because of the prohibition of causing unnecessary physical harm to the human body, and consequently, if the fetus has a severe defect, abortion is permitted * The instruction of the former Chief Rabbi Avraham Shapira to publicize the opinion of the lenient poskim * In practice, it is proper to be lenient * An account of how our teacher and guide, Rabbi Tzvi Yehudah HaKohen Kook ztz”l, instructed to be lenient

Is it Permissible to Abort a Fetus Suffering from Severe Defects?

One of the difficult questions in Jewish law is when, during pregnancy, it becomes evident that a fetus suffers from severe defects: Is it permitted to terminate the pregnancy? In the past, such a question did not exist, because there was no way of checking the condition of the fetus. Yet, infants who suffered from significant defects usually died in infancy or childhood, since infant and child mortality was extremely high, and even among healthy children, over fifty percent of them did not reach their teens.

The Fetuses’ In-between Status

On the one hand, clearly it is forbidden to kill a fetus or cause it to die. Moreover, we are even commanded to desecrate the Sabbath in order to save a fetus – even if it has not yet reached the age of forty days. This is because the fetus will eventually become a living person, and as our Sages said (Yoma 85b), “Profane for his sake one Sabbath, so that he may keep many Sabbaths” (Bahag, Ramban, Peninei Halakha:Shabbat 27:3).

On the other hand, as long as the fetus is still in its mother’s womb, it does not have the din (legal status) of a living person, and therefore, although someone who kills a human being is deserving of death, one who kills a fetus is not. And since the fetus is not considered to be a living person, it does not have the right of inheritance as does a child already born, it is not defiled by the dead, and only from the moment of birth is it considered to be a human being (Nida 44a,b).

The Source for the Prohibition of Abortion

We learned in this week’s Torah portion: “He who spills human blood shall have his own blood spilled by man (in Hebrew, ‘ha’adam b’adam‘, literally, ‘the person within a person’), for God made man with His own image” (Genesis 9:6). From this verse, Rabbi Ishmael interpreted in a homiletic manner: Who is the person within a person? – This refers to a fetus, and one who kills it also deserves death (Sanhedrin 57b; Rambam Laws of Kings 9:4. It is important to note that the penalty of death referred to is only for B’nei Noah, in similar respect to a Ben Noah who steals a pruta (penny) is deserving of the death penalty; rather, this is the maximum punishment intended for deterrence, and is subject to the decision of the legal system of any given nation).

Nevertheless, the question is: What is the foundation of the prohibition of abortion? Is it because of murder, or the prohibition of chabalah (causing unnecessary physical harm to the human body)? Seemingly, the fact that the prohibition was mentioned in conjunction with the prohibition of murder means it is a derivative of murder. On the other hand, since the killing of a fetus had to be learned from a homiletic interpretation seemingly means that without this interpretation, we would not know that it is forbidden to kill a fetus, and hence, the prohibition of abortion is derived solely from the prohibition of causing unnecessary physical harm to the human body. Additionally, we have learned in the Torah (Exodus 21:22) that a person who arms a pregnant woman and causes her to miscarry is obligated to pay damages, implying that abortion is not considered murder.

The Stringent Opinion

In the opinion of Rabbi Unterman and Rabbi Feinstein abortion is forbidden indeed because of murder, and consequently, under no circumstances can a fetus be aborted, even if it is suffering from the most severe illnesses. Only in a situation when the pregnancy endangers the life of the mother is an abortion permitted, because her life takes precedence over the life of the fetus.

Some poskim (Jewish law arbiters) instructed to forbid abortions because of the seriousness of the matter and the value of human life, but did not regard abortion as actual murder. This was the instruction of Rabbi Auerbach and Rabbi Elyashiv (Nishmat Avraham, Choshen Mishpat 425, 1:1).

In a similar manner, in the responsa ‘Shevet Halevi’ (7,208; 9, 266), Rabbi Wosner rejected the words of those who believe that abortion is forbidden because of the prohibition of murder, but nevertheless, permitted abortion only in a situation of safek nefashot (possible danger to life).

Some poskim were machmir (stringent) because they took something else into consideration – the difficulty of trusting doctors, who often assert that the fetus is deformed, but in the end, a healthy baby is born. This was the inclination of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Yebiah Omer, section 4, E.H. 1), since it is a safek issur d’oreita (a possible Torah
prohibition), and it is difficult to trust doctors.

The Lenient Opinion

Many poskim believe that abortion is forbidden because of the prohibition of causing unnecessary physical harm to the human body and hashchata (wanton destruction). So is it written the responsa ‘Maharit’ (1, 97) and responsa’ Chavot Yair’. Accordingly, in severe cases and to avoid great sorrow – there is room to consider permitting an abortion.

In the responsa ‘Rav Pealim’, the Ben Ish Chai was asked about a case of an ubar mamzer (a fetus conceived from a forbidden relation) in its fifth month – can it be aborted? He did not want to reply with an unequivocal ruling, but rather summarized for the rabbi who asked, that in the opinion of Chavot Yair, when there is no great need it is forbidden l’chatchila (from the outset). And in the opinion of Maharit (1, 97), abortion is prohibited because of chabalah, and is permitted when necessary. Apparently from his words, he was inclined to be lenient. And in the responsa ‘She’elat Yavetz’ (1, 43), Rabbi Emden permitted the abortion an ubar mamzer.

The responsa ‘Chesed Me’Lublin’ (E.H.) concluded that there is a difference of opinion among the Rishonim whether the prohibition of abortion is from the Torah or of rabbinic stature, and if in the opinion of those who believe it is from the Torah, it is permitted to abort in a case of a mother’s great need, even if there is no mortal danger.

In the responsa ‘Mishpatei Uziel’ (section 4, Choshen Mishpat 44), the question was asked about a woman who, in the opinion of the doctors, if allowed to continue her pregnancy would become deaf, and Rabbi Uziel answered that since deafness is a considerable impairment, she is allowed to abort.

And in the responsa ‘Seridei Aish’ (Choshen Mishpat 162), Rabbi Weinberg inclined to be lenient according to the opinion of the majority of Rishonim, that abortion is not considered murder, because the fetus is not yet considered a person.

Our teacher and mentor, Rabbi Shaul Yisraeli (Amud HaYemini 32), also wrote in a similar manner. And this was also the instruction of Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg in his responsa ‘Tzitz Eliezer’ (chapter 9, 51, 3:3, and many other places), while basing his remarks on a broad and thorough discussion of all aspects of the matter.

The Reason for Past Conclusions

Some twenty-five years ago my sister, who worked as a nurse at Shaare Zedek Hospital, told me that majority of Jewish babies who were born with Down’s syndrome and other far more severe defects came from religiously observant families. This was because the public is unaware that there are poskim who are lenient regarding having an abortion in cases of illness, and consequently, many women do not perform tests while pregnant. And even for a woman who is tested and it turns out that her fetus suffers from severe defects, it is inconceivable to her that there might be room to ask a rabbi a halakhic question.

I was shocked to hear this sad fact, and just to be sure I checked with various doctors, and indeed, it turned out to be true. I thought there was immense value in publicizing the lenient opinion of the poskim in my daily halakha spot on Arutz Sheva, which I broadcasted at the time.

Yet, I knew that some people would argue that I shouldn’t publicize the lenient opinion, lest “the fences are breached” and some women determine the halakha leniently for themselves, to have an abortion for economic or social reasons, or because of minor defects, which are forbidden in the opinion of all poskim.

I went to my mentor and guide, Rabbi Avraham Shapira shlita, Rosh Yeshiva of Mercaz Harav and Chief Rabbi of Israel, to ask his opinion. He was also sad to hear the data, and told me it was very important to publicize the opinion of the lenient poskim because their opinions could be relied on. And when I asked if I could quote his name and opinion, he did not want to determine in favor of one of the views, but instructed me to say that every family may decide whether to ask a rabbi who is inclined l’chumra (to be strict) or l’kula (to be lenient). (Later, I heard that after Rabbi Yisraeli and Rabbi Waldenberg died and he could no longer send questioners to them, he himself instructed to be lenient).

Indeed, for the benefit of the public at large, I taught this halakha in the framework of ‘Pinat Ha’Halacha‘ (‘the Halakha Spot’) on Arutz Sheva. Later on, I summarized these laws in detail in my book ‘Peninei Halakha‘ (Likutim Bet), and in my newspaper column ‘Revivim‘.

The Primary Opinion is that of Leniency

Over the last year I have re-examined this profound issue, and out of my studies, my belief that the lenient opinion is the primary one has strengthened. This is because from the issue in the Gemara, the words of the Rishonim and Achronim, it arises that the prohibition of abortion is because of hashchata, and not murder. Indeed, many poskim of the last generation inclined to be stringent; the minority of them because they believed that abortion is forbidden as murder, and the majority because of the great value of life inherent in the fetus. Some poskim instructed in this manner because they did not rely on the opinion of doctors.

And even though the issue is very severe, it seemingly, it would be appropriate to take into consideration the opinion of the stringent poskim, nevertheless, in this case it is proper to be lenient, because being stringent in such issues can cause terrible suffering to the parents and those born, and sometimes the suffering leads to the break-up of the family. Therefore, in an extremely pressing situation, such as when the fetus suffers from Tay-Sachs or other severe defects, or the fetus is known to a mamzer, or continuing the pregnancy could cause blindness or deafness to the mother – one can rely on the lenient opinion of the poskim, for their opinion is more well-founded. This was the inclination of my rabbis, Roshei Yeshivot (heads) of the Mercaz Harav Yeshiva.

However, in any such serious questions, one must get the opinion of an honest doctor who relates reverently to the life of the fetus, and then ask a rabbi who is familiar with the field.

Ma’aseh Rav

I heard from my father and teacher, Rabbi Zalman Baruch Melamed shlita, that when he was a young teacher in the Mercaz Harav Yeshiva about forty-five years ago, he was approached by a married couple with a question: While pregnant, the woman became ill with German measles and according to the doctors, there is a twenty-five percent chance that the fetus will be deformed. At first, my father went to Rabbi Shaul Yisraeli, one of the heads of the Yeshiva. However, despite the fact that in his book ‘Amud HaYemini’ he wrote abortion was permitted, he did not want to decide this question, and referred my father to his colleague, Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv, who inclined to be strict in this matter. And indeed, Rabbi Elyashiv said there was no possibility of being lenient without the fear of pikuach nefesh (life endangering situation), but if there is a concern that the woman will become mentally unstable, it is possible to be lenient. My father asked him: And how can we know if there is such concern? He replied: Let the pregnant woman decide.

The woman was not able to decide, and the couple remained in tremendous sorrow. This being the case, my father went to his teacher and mentor, the Rosh Yeshiva, Rabbi Tzvi Yehuda HaKohen Kook ztz”l – who was nearly twenty years older than Rabbi Yisraeli and Rabbi Elyashiv, but was not accustomed to determine halakhic questions – and asked him what to do, given that Rabbi Yisraeli refrained from permitting, and Rabbi Elyashiv was stringent. Rabbi Tzvi Yehudah said to rely on the written answer of Rabbi Yisraeli, and permit the abortion. End of story.

Apparently, Rabbi Yisraeli avoided permitting the abortion because he wrote his response that only when the majority of the chances are that the fetus is ill, is an abortion permitted, and since in the question at hand the risk was twenty-five percent, he abstained from permitting. What Rabbi Tzvi Yehudah instructed was in accordance with the principle written in Rabbi Yisraeli’s response, whereby abortion is forbidden because of the prohibition of causing chabalah,
and not because of murder, and in a situation of significant danger, and when the couple is also in a state of great sorrow, it is possible to rely on the foundations clarified in his written response.

This article appears in the ‘Basheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

Judgment on the High Holidays

In the opinion of many Jewish law authorities, the principal judgment on the High Holidays concerns the World to Come * Life in the World to Come is divided into two stages: the World of Souls, and the Resurrection of the Dead * “The reward of a mitzvah, is a mitzvah” – one who is judged for life on Rosh Hashanah will  have events occur during the year that help him continue ascending spiritually * In general, the righteous are rewarded and the wicked are punished, but the factors of  judgment are profound and complex * Why do the righteous sometimes suffer, and the wicked live the good life in this world * Reward and punishment is according to the intensity and effort of the test * The effect of the judgment of ‘Clal Yisrael’ on the individual

What is Man judged for during the High Holidays?

Prior to the ‘Yamim Nora’im’ (Days of Awe), I will dedicate this column to a deepening of the understanding of din (judgment). And although the topic is complex, studying it carries great benefit, because it involves attempting to arrange complex issues (a reader who wishes to understand these topics more thoroughly, can refer to ‘Peninei Halakha: Yamim Nora’im’, Chapter 1). Our Sages said that on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, the righteous are judged for life, and the wicked for death. And as we will learn further on, the meaning is life in this world and the World to Come, as well.

The Two Phases of the World to Come

Life in Olam Ha’Ba (the World to Come) is comprised of two phases. The first stage begins after one’s death, when his soul rises to the Olam HaNeshamot (World of Souls), which consists of Gan Eden for the righteous, and Gehinom for the wicked. The second phase will arrive after tikkun olam (perfection of the world) is completed with Techiyat HaMeytim (Resurrection of the Dead), when souls are reunited with the bodies, and together, ascend endlessly (Ramban, Sha’ar Ha’Gamul; Ramchal, Derech Hashem, Part 1, section III). The World to Come, in both its phases, is also called Olam HaEmet (the World of Truth), because in comparison to this world where falsehood prevails, and the external appearance hides the inner essence – in the World to Come the real status of a person and the true value of his actions becomes clear. And since the World to Come is immeasurably more important than this world, as our Sages said “This world is like a lobby before the World to Come” (Avot, 4:16), in the opinion of many Torah authorities, one’s principle judgment on Rosh Hashanah concerns the World to Come.

Two Components of the Judgment Concerning the World to Come

The first component of judgment is that every year, all of one’s actions during the year are taken into account. For the good actions one has performed reward is reserved for the World to Come, and for his bad actions, punishment. However, the judgment determined on Rosh Hashanah is not final, because if during the coming years one repents, he saves himself from the judgment of Gehinom, and increases his reward in the World to Come. And if, God forbid, a person has misgivings about his previous ways, and regrets having done good deeds, he will inherit Gehinom and lose the reward that had been reserved for him in the World to Come.

The Opportunity to Get Closer to God

The second part of judgment is the opportunity to come closer to God in the coming year. A person who is judged for life on Rosh Hashanah will be given opportunities during the year that will help him continue ascending in Torah and mitzvoth, meriting him life in the World to Come. While learning Torah – he merits added enlightenment and understanding; and when performing mitzvoth and good deeds – he merits added joy and blessing, a sort of taste of the World to Come. If, God forbid, one is judged for death, he is given tests and events in the coming year that are liable to turn him away from God, and forfeit the World to Come. And even if he studies Torah – he has difficulty absorbing its Divine enlightenment, and when performing mitzvoth – he will not be able to feel the holiness and pleasure of the commandments properly. This is the meaning of our Sages statement (Avot 4:2): “One mitzvah will lead to another mitzvah, and one sin to another sin. Because the reward of a mitzvah is a mitzvah, and the wages of a sin, is sin (Nefesh Ha’Chaim 1:12).

Reward is Called ‘Life’ and Penalty ‘Death’

In general, reward is called ‘life’, and penalty is referred to as ‘death’. The definition of life is a closeness and connection with God, the Source of Life, and thereby man merits all the good that God abundantly provides in this world, in the World of Souls, and in the World to Come. And seeing as the source of all good and pleasure in this world stems from the life that God showers the world – the reward in the World to Come is immeasurably greater than all the pleasures of this world, which are but a pale reflection of the Source of Pleasure. This is the meaning of our Sages statement: “One hour of spiritual bliss in the World to Come is worth more than the whole life of this world” (Avot 4:17). This is because in the World to Come a person can merit enjoying the splendor of the Divine Presence of God, his life force increasing and growing infinitely stronger, whereas in this world, the Divine aura reaches us through partitions and a great constriction (tzim’tzum). Nevertheless, by adhering to God through the study of Torah and performance of the mitzvoth, a person can merit sort of taste of the World to Come in this world as well, and enjoy devotion to God. In contrast to reward which is referred to as life, the general designation of punishment is death, which is defined as being distanced from the Source of Life, which causes an increase in troubles, until the eventual death of the body in this world, and the torments of the soul in Gehinom.

The Profundity and Complexity of Judgment

Although the rules of judgment are simple – for one who walks in the paths of God receives the blessing in this world and the next, and an evil person is punished in this world and the next – the details of judgment are profound and infinitely complex. Consequently, there are cases in which a righteous person suffers poverty, illness, and dies an early death, and in contrast, a wicked person who continues his evil ways, and is rich and healthy. The primary point is that everything is intended for tikkun olam. And I will now clarify a bit.

Free Choice

For the purpose of tikkun olam, it is essential for man to have bechira chofshit (freedom of choice). Therefore, so long as the world has not reached its perfection, it is impossible for all the righteous to enjoy the good and all the wicked to suffer, because then the choice would be predictable and dictated by the expectation of guaranteed, tangible reward, and fear of definite, tangible punishment, and not out of a free and true choice of good. Therefore, the implementation of judgment is extremely complex and its factors are numerous, so that there will always be righteous people who have to deal with suffering, and wicked people who seem to enjoy worldly pleasures. And thus, free will is not affected, and one who chooses well, merits correcting himself, and the entire world. In any event, when looking at the long-term, for example, family matters and true happiness in life, we usually find that in this world the righteous merit blessing, and the wicked are punished. And this is the key part of the test, for the yetzer hara (evil inclination) inclines one to observe the world superficially and in short-term, while the yetzer ha’tov (good inclination) arouses an individual to perceive the deeper side and the long-term. Therefore, despite the fact that even in this world and in the long-term righteous people generally merit good and the evil often suffer, free choice still remains, because in the short-term this is not evident.

When the Fate of a Person’s Destiny is Sealed

I will now begin to explain the details of judgment. There are people whose destiny is to be rich and to cope with the accompanying inclinations involved with wealth, and even if such a person sins a lot, he will remain wealthy. All the judgment of Rosh Hashanah in this issue concerns his life circumstances as a rich person – will he be happy in his wealth, or suffer worrying over it. This is also the case concerning his life in the World to Come – the judgment is whether his wealth will result in him being able to endure extremely hard or simple tests, or perhaps even help him in his service of God. On the other hand, there are those whose destiny is to cope with poverty, and even if such a person has numerous good deeds he will remain poor, and his verdict concerns whether his poverty will be dreadful, or bearable. And in regards to the World to Come, whether his circumstances of being poor will help him serve God, or interfere. And then occasionally, as a result of special good deeds or grave sins, a person can change the fate of his destiny.

 When the Fate of One’s Destiny is not Sealed

At times, a person’s determined fate is not completely sealed, but only sets the direction and still allows for certain changes, and in such a case the judgment on Rosh Hashanah can also affect a person whose destiny it is to be rich – will he be only comfortable, wealthy, or very rich; and the same goes for the poor – will one be tight for money, poor, or destitute.

Is Wealth a Reward?

And sometimes, a person has no particular destiny to be either poor or rich, and consequently, his fate is not determined. Since he chose to do good deeds in matters relating to money and charity, according to Divine judgment he deserves to be wealthy, and continues to prosper so he can grow further in his acts of righteousness and piety. Sometimes, it is apparent to the One who knows all mysteries, that if a person merits wealth, his evil inclinations will overcome him and there is fear of his sinning in pride, lust and stinginess, and losing his level of righteousness. And in such a case, since deveykut (clinging to God) is the most important feature, upon which his life in this world depends, Heaven has pity on him, and he is judged with hardships of making a living, in order to escape from the difficult test and merit life in the World to Come. And if one is not so deserving, he might merit wealth in this world, but will have to face difficult tests which are liable to lower him to the abyss.

According to the Enormity of the Test

There is another type of accounting: the intensity of coping and overcoming required of a person in order to choose good, and avoid evil. Some people’s destiny is that they were created with a very powerful evil inclination, or grew up in a difficult and bad environment, and even if they are able to learn only a little bit of Torah and do a few good deeds – this has significant value, and they will merit great reward. As said our Sages said “l’foom tzara agra” (the reward is according to the suffering) (Avot 5:23). On the other hand, some people have a strong good inclination and grew up in a good environment, and if they sin – they will be severely punished.

The Reward of the Wicked, and the Punishment of the Righteous, in This World

There is another type of accounting: sometimes, an evil person who did a few mitzvoth is judged to receive all the reward for his mitzvoth in this world, so he will be doomed to Gehinom. And sometimes a righteous person who had a few sins is judged to receive all his punishment in this world, so that he will ascend to Gan Eden clean and pure. And although reward and punishment in this world is incomparable to reward in the World to Come, such an accounting is proper and correct, because the evil person did the mitzvoth for external reasons – to be proud and boast, and therefore, it is also fitting that he be rewarded in this fleeting world, and not receive reward for it in the Olam Ha’Emet (World of Truth). This is also the case for a righteous person; since his main desire was to cling to God, if he accidentally sinned – just as his sin was exterior, so too it is fitting for his punishment to be exterior in this world, and thus, be purified until no blemish remains from the sin in the World to Come (Kiddushin 39b; Derech Hashem, Section 2, 2:6).

Judgment of the Clal and the Individual

It is also important to understand that although the judgment of Rosh Hashanah is for the nation as a whole and for each individual on his own, nevertheless, the judgment of an individual in this world is heavily influenced by the general condition of the nation – each nation according to its concerns. True, sometimes there is no contradiction between the judgment of the nation and that of an individual, for even when the nation as a whole merits receiving an abundance of blessing, the blessing is not affected by there being some individuals who are punished for their sins. Also, when the nation as a whole is punished, the punishment is not affected because some individuals merit reward. But sometimes a contradiction does exist between the judgment of the nation and that of an individual, for example, when the nation is sentenced a difficult verdict such as destruction and exile, and then, inevitably, the righteous are also punished. In any event, the judgment remains unchanged, for in the Olam Ha’Neshamot, in Gan Eden, the righteous will receive their full reward, and the full completion will be in the World to Come, at the time of Techiyat HaMeytim, when the souls return to be reunited with their bodies.

This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

Praying with Rabbi Aryeh Levin

‘Peninei Halakha’ for the High Holidays * Memories from High Holiday prayers in Yeshiva Merkaz HaRav, imbued by the spirit of Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaKohen Kook and his son, Rabbi Tzvi Yehuda * The style and melodies of prayers that Rabbi Aryeh Levin brought from the Volozhin Yeshiva * The spirit of Merkaz HaRav – sincerity, honest fear of Heaven, enormous love of Israel, and idealism * Why do the High Holiday prayers deal primarily with Clal Yisrael, and not the individual * Accentuating the clal strengthens the individual * How to write halakha in a way that the differences between the customs of various ethnic groups be perceived as differing tones of a harmonious orchestra

A New Book for the High Holidays

With the help of God, a new book on the High Holidays has been published in the series of books ‘Peninei Halakha’, and thus, I merited finishing the laws of Shabbat and the Festivals (seven volumes). In the introduction to the book I wrote a few memories and thoughts that accompanied me in my study and writings.


“I remember the days when my father and teacher escorted me from the neighborhood of Givat Mordechai in Jerusalem to Yeshiva Merkaz HaRav in Kiryat Moshe for the High Holiday prayers. Although I was a little boy, the great and awesome prayers left a deep impression in my heart. For as long as I could, I would pray there. Every year it becomes clearer to me how much the lofty spirit that pervaded the Yeshiva deepens its impact on me. The walls of the beit midrash (study hall) were permeated with the eminent soul of the founder of the Yeshiva, the great light of recent generations, Maran HaRav Kook ztz”l, and the spirit of his son and heir, the Rosh Yeshiva at the time, our teacher and guide, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda HaKohen Kook ztz”l . Although, Rabbi Tzvi Yehuda would pray in the old building of the Yeshiva, because, how could he not pray in the place where his father prayed? Nevertheless, his impact on those praying in the new building in Kiryat Moshe was huge. Vaguely, I remember the prayers of the righteous Rabbi Aryeh Levin ztz”l, who would lead the Mussaf prayers on the first day of Rosh Hashana, and in addition, the evening, Mussaf, and Ne’ilah prayers on Yom Kippur. The Mussaf prayers on the second day of Rosh Hashana were led by Rabbi Mordechai Frum ztz”l, a teacher in the Yeshiva and the son-in-law of Rabbi Kook’s son-in-law.

Rabbi Aryeh Levin testified that Rabbi Frum’s prayers were similar to those he had heard in the Volozhin Yeshiva, a nusach (version) that was passed down from the Maharil. After he passed away, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda HaKohen Kook asked my father to be the shaliach tzibbur in his place. I heard from Rabbi Mordechai Sternberg shlita, that indeed, my father’s prayers were very similar to those of Rabbi Aryeh Levin, both in tone and nusach, to the point where when he closed his eyes, it seemed to him that Rabbi Aryeh Levin was standing in prayer at the moment. His prayers were uttered with supplication and humility, like a son reconciling his father.

In the mizrach (the wall of the synagogue that faces east, where seats are reserved for the rabbis and other dignitaries) on the right side of the chazzan (cantor), sat Rabbi Shapira, Rabbi Israeli, Rabbi Frum, and behind them, my father. Opposite, prayed the grandson Rav Kook, Rabbi Shlomo Raanan hy’d. I’ll never forget how he hastened me to emphatically say together with him: “Achat, achat v’achat, etc.” In my childhood years, I wondered about the meaning of this counting which apparently, according to the nusach of the prayer, carries great importance. As a result of this, while growing, up I continued thinking about the meaning. The explanation for this counting (Chapter 10:11) is dedicated to his memory.

I also remember Rabbi Shabbtai Shmueli z”l, the secretary of the Yeshiva and one of its first students, exclaim in a trembling voice from his seat “Ha Melech” (the King), and approach the pulpit to lead the morning prayers. Afterwards, he would blow the shofar. Later, when he got older, my uncle, Rabbi Eitan Eisman shlita, who also accompanied us from Givat Mordechai, replaced him, and became the permanent shofar blower. He also taught me to blow the shofar, thereby fulfilling the words of our Sages: “Children need not be stopped from blowing; on the contrary, they may be helped until they learn how to blow” (Rosh Hashana 33a; R’ma 596:1). I remember the Kiddush the rabbis made in the classrooms with Rabbi Mordechai Frum before Mussaf, and his state of tension prior to the holy service. On our way back, we would go through the Hebrew University, and in its pond, we would do tashlich.

After the passing of Rabbi Aryeh Levin, our teacher and guide, Rabbi Avraham Shapira ztz”l became the shaliach tzibbur for Ne’ilah, and later, after Rabbi Mordechai Frum passed away, also for one mussaf prayer of Rosh Hashana. And when my father moved to Beit El, Rabbi Shapira served as chazzan for both Mussaf prayers, and his voice, which would emanate from the core of his soul, filled with great emotion, would tremble and stir the hearts.

Kol Nidrei, and usually Ne’ilah, we prayed in Givat Mordechai, and there I got to pray with baalei batim, some of whom were Holocaust survivors, and hear Rabbi Yehuda Amital ztz”l serve as chazzan. His tunes, which were also steeped in warmth and yearning, had an influence on me. Later, after he began to pray in his yeshiva in Har Etzion, my father replaced him in the Ne’ilah prayer. This also happened when the Yom Kippur War broke out, when synagogue worshipers were recruited to the front.

When I try to decipher the unique atmosphere in Yeshiva Mercaz Harav, it seems to me that in addition to the excitement that accompanies all yeshivas, a unique spirit of sincerity, honest fear of Heaven, tremendous love for Israel, and idealism permeated the Yeshiva. There were Torah scholars and yeshiva students who were connected with all their hearts to the soldiers in the army, to the settlers making our land bloom, to all inhabitants of the land, and the Jews of the Diaspora. And above all, they yearned for the revelation Torat Eretz Yisrael, to bring Ge’ulah (redemption) to the world, as our teacher and guide, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda would always teach his classes, which I was privileged to hear later on in my studies at the Yeshiva.

In the book “Peninei Halakha: Yamim Nora’im“, I tried to impart some of the inspiration I merited receiving from the High Holiday prayers within the Yeshiva of Maran Harav Kook.

Clal Yisrael

The idea of ‘clal Yisrael‘ is very prominent in the halakhot of the High Holidays, and based on God’s choosing us from all of the nations to be His chosen people in order to reveal His Divine Presence in the world and achieve tikkun olam. This is the foundation for teshuva (repentance) and kapara (atonement). Despite this, many people engaged in Torah tend to emphasize the individual side stemming from man, and as a result remain in their small-mindedness, in spite of all their theoretical and emotional efforts.

And there are some who even dare to argue against Maran Harav Kook as if he supposedly over-stressed the yisod ha’clali (the general, overall foundation of Israel). Yet the truth is that the idea of the ‘clal‘ is the main uniqueness and sanctity of Israel, and one who pays attention to what he says in prayers and Selichot will immediately notice this. Rav Kook “returned the crown to its former glory”, explaining in depth the meaning of kedushat clal Yisrael (the sanctity of all of Israel).

Apparently, the impurity of galut (exile) caused many Jews to forget the general foundation, and consequently, we are required to learn Torah straightforwardly and understand that the foundation of emunah (faith), teshuva (repentance), and ge’ulah (redemption) lies in kedushat Yisrael. This is the most important aspect of the prayers of the High Holy Days, whose roots stem from the service of the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) who atoned for all of Israel.

Accentuating the Clal Strengthens the Individual

An individual should not worry about rising to the level of the clal, because only in a superficial understanding does the concept of ​​the clal harm the individual’s status; but in truth, the concept of the clal empowers and uplifts the individual, giving sacred and eternal meaning to all of one’s inclinations. As our Sages said “one hundred is included in two hundred” – dealing with the clal also embraces within it dealing with all the details, because the clal is made up of all the details. However, dealing with the details does not encompass the clal.

The time for the individual to do teshuva is throughout the entire year, and the teshuva of the Days of Awe is meant for the clal because during these days the entire year is renewed, and consequently, it is the time for all of Israel to return and remember its faith, and awaken to adherence to Torah and mitzvoth. And since it is a repentance of the clal, these days also include great joy, and this is reflected in the mitzvah to hold a festive meal on Rosh Hashanah and before Yom Kippur, and wear festive clothes.

Emphasis on Common Rules

There are books on halakha which place heavy emphasis on the differences between the ethnic customs, and this creates great distress and difficulty in remembering the learning. For example, children are taught that Ashkenazi Jews blow the shofar during Elul and the Sephardic Jews do not. However, the correct way is to learn the fundamental rules common to all, and thus the halakha is explained well, and the differences in customs seem as differing tones in a harmonious orchestra.

Blowing the Shofar during the Month of Elul

This is what I wrote on the matter of blowing the shofar (Chapter 2:1):

“Our Sages said: “On Rosh Chodesh Elul, God said to Moshe, ‘Come up to Me on the mountain’ (Deuteronomy 10:1, to atone for the sin of the Golden Calf), and pass the shofar throughout the camp, for Moshe was about to ascend the mountain so they would not error once again in idol worship. And God was lifted up on that day by means of that shofar, as it is written: ‘Elohim is ascended with a shout of joy, Hashem with the sound of a shofar’ (Tehillim 47:6). Thus, our Sages decreed the shofar be blown every year on Rosh Chodesh Elul (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer 46). And they chose to arouse the nation by the sound of the shofar because of its ability to warn the people from sinning, and stir the masses to repent (Tur and B.Y., O.C. 581:1).

And it is the Jewish custom to blow the shofar during the month of Elul. The custom of Ashkenazi Jews is to blow the shofar at the end of morning prayers. And custom of Sephardic Jews is to recite Selichot during Elul and blow the shofar when saying the Kaddish at the end of the Selichot, and many also blow the shofar while reciting the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy. The custom of blowing the shofar is not compulsory, but nevertheless, it is worthy of the public to try fulfill the custom, but one who did not hear the shofar does not need to seek out someone to blow it for him”.

The Custom of Selichot

This is also the appropriate way to explain the basis of the custom of Selichot, which was initiated during the period of the Gaonim, and whose goal is to request the redemption of Israel, as appears from the text of the Selichot (ibid, 2:2-4), and only afterwards to continue to the differences of customs. And so I wrote:

“During the times of the Gaonim, the custom was to say Selichot during the Ten Days of Repentance, and this was the custom in the large yeshivas in Babylon, and there were a few places where they used to say Selichot also during the entire month of Elul.

At the end of the period of the Rishonim, the custom of reciting Selichot during all of Elul and the Ten Days of Repentance was accepted (S.A. 581:1). And the closer Rosh Hashana gets, the more people are careful to awaken for Selichot, and in particular, during the Ten Days of Repentance. And Ashkenazi custom is to begin reciting Selichot on Motzei Shabbat before Rosh Hashanah, provided they are able to say Selichot four days before Rosh Hashana. In addition, the Ashkenazi custom is to add the psalm from Tehillim, “Mizmor l’David, Hashem is my light and salvation” for the month of Elul, as well as adding Torah study and teshuva, which have the same goal.”

This article appears in the ‘Basheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.


The Virtue of Adoptive Parents

Are childless couples obligated to undergo medical treatments to fulfill the mitzvah of procreation? * The virtue of childless couples who adopt neglected children, who are considered as if they had given birth to them * The duty of an adopted son to honor his adoptive parents * Naomi was considered the mother of Oved because she helped take care and raise him * One who teaches and educates a friend’s child is considered as if he gave birth to him * The importance of joining the organization ‘Otzar Ha’aretz’, which finds optimum ways to keep Shmitta and maintain Jewish agricultural in Israel

An Agonizing Question

“Rabbi, as couple yearning for a second child, your recent articles were very important for us. Especially what you wrote about the value of love and joy among childless couples and the considerable test it entails – not to sink into sorrow, but to always increase kindness and joy. May we merit that always.

Nonetheless, we are still faced with the question of how much effort we should invest in medical treatments to fulfill the mitzvah of procreation. Thank God, we already have one child, and our question is whether we should make an effort to carry out in vitro fertilization in order to fulfill the mitzvah of procreation of having a son and daughter? Essentially, this is a general question: does the mitzvah of procreation require unnatural efforts?


It is a mitzvah for all couples struggling to fulfill the mitzvoth of procreation to act in all conventional medical methods to fulfill the mitzvah of having a son and a daughter, including performing in vitro fertilization.

True, in past times the poskim (Jewish law arbiters) instructed that a person was not obligated to perform unnatural procedures in order to fulfill the mitzvah. But this was during a time when reliable ways to solve the problem had not yet been discovered, and even the doctors themselves were divided in their opinions. Consequently, the majority of the public was unaccustomed to using methods that some doctors had developed, and thus, making an effort by means of them was considered unnatural (see, Divrei Malkiel 4:107; Minchat Shlomo, III, 98:8).

Today however, after medical techniques have successfully been developed, to the point where the vast majority of infertility problems can be solved by them, any procedure that is customary to perform within the medical framework is considered part of one’s obligation to fulfill the mitzvah. Obviously, this includes all treatments that HMO’s must provide their policyholders. And seemingly, even treatments that are not included in regular health insurance – if the majority of people wishing to have children perform them regularly, then one is required to do so, even if they are expensive – in order to fulfill the Torah obligation of procreation. This is what Rabbi Dichovsky has written (Techumin 22).

Even for those who have already fulfilled the Torah obligation of procreation, it is a mitzvah to have more children using the tools that medicine offers. However, when doing so requires great effort, it is not obligatory, but only a hidur (enhancement).

The Puah Institute

This is the opportunity to mention my distinguished friend, since the days we studied together in the Mercaz Harav Yeshiva, Rabbi Menachem Burstein, shlita, who founded the Puah Institute – Fertility and Medicine According to Halakha – to assist all those requesting help in fulfilling this great mitzvah. The enormous merit of those working in this holy endeavor, assisting parents to have children, is unimaginable.

Adoption of Children

A righteous man wrote me about his and his wife’s difficult infertility problems, and about the great hardships they endured in prayers and large financial expenditures. His wife underwent unbearable treatments, including hundreds, and perhaps thousands of shots, in vitro fertilization, and abortions. In spite of all their efforts they remained childless, but found an important solution – adoption. He implored me to write about the virtue of adoption, through which children at risk are rescued, and the pain of childless couples can lead to salvation.

I am honored to fill his request, and thus glorify these righteous people, fathers and mothers who merit raising orphaned and abandoned children.

Those Who Raise Orphans are deemed as if they Gave Birth to Them

Our Sages said (Ketubot 50a) that concerning a person who merits raising a girl or boy orphan in their home and marries them off, the verse says he is “practicing righteousness at all times” (Tehillim, 106:3). They also said in the Midrash (Shmot Rabba, 45:6) that God has treasures from which to reward the righteous, including a special treasure to reward those who raise orphans in their homes.

Our Sages said: “Anyone who brings up an orphan boy or girl in his house, Scripture accounts it as if he had begotten him” (Megillah 13a). This does not necessarily refer to an orphan whose parents have both died, but also to a child who has parents, but cannot provide for all his physical and emotional needs. This is because the source for our Sages statement comes from Moshe Rabbeinu, who is called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, Batya. And although his mother was Yocheved, and she even nursed him, because Batya raised him, Moshe Rabbeinu was considered her son.

Some poskim are even of the opinion that a couple who raise an orphan in their home actually fulfill the mitzvah of procreation, because when our Sages said “Scripture accounts it as if he had begotten him”, they meant it literally – the couple is considered as if they had actually given birth to the child (see, Chochmat Shlomo, E.H., 1:1). In any case, even according to all the other poskim who hold that it is not actually like giving birth, from a certain aspect, there is an additional mitzvah in adopting a child, for the parents do so voluntarily.

The Mitzvah to Honor One’s Adopted Parents

Adopted children are obligated to honor their adopted parents no less than ordinary children. Although from a detailed aspect of the mitzvah, adopted children are not obligated precisely like biological children, and therefore they are permitted to perform medical procedures on their adopted parents entailing the drawing of blood (Peninei Halakha: Likutim 3, 1:25). Nevertheless, according to Torah ethics, they are obligated to honor their parents just as ordinary children are, and in a certain respect, even more, seeing as their adoptive parents did so voluntarily.

It is also a mitzvah for adopted children to mourn and say Kaddish for their adopted parents after their deaths.

Helping Raise Needy Children

Someone who finds it difficult to raise an orphan can contribute money to help take care of abandoned children in order to meet their needs and stand them on their feet, and by doing so is also considered a partner in raising them, and to a certain extent, as if he had given birth to them. The more substantial the aid, the more important ones part is.

Even a person who helps biological parents take care of their child and educate him is considered, to a certain extent, as if he had given birth to him. As our Sages said (Sanhedrin 19b) that Oved, the son of Ruth and Boaz, is also called the son of Naomi, because she was a partner in his care and education, as it is written: “And the women of the neighborhood gave him a name, saying, ‘A son has been born to Naomi’. They named him Oved. He was the father of Yishai, the father of David” (Ruth 4:17).

Students Comparable with Sons

Our Sages said: “He who teaches the son of his neighbor the Torah, Scripture ascribes it to him as if he had begotten him”, and the proof is that the sons of Aaron are called the sons of Moshe Rabbeinu – “thus teaching you that Aaron begot, and Moshe taught them; hence, they are called by his name” (Sanhedrin 19b).

Likewise, it is written in portion of the Sh’ma prayer: “And you shall teach them sharply to your children” (Deuteronomy 6:7), and our Sages interpreted (Sifri): “To your children – these are your students, as you find in all places that students are called sons, as it is written: ‘And the sons of the prophets who were in Bethel came out to Elisha’; were they really sons of prophets? In fact, they were students! Rather, from here we learn that students are called sons … and just as students are called sons, a Rabbi is called a father, as it is written: “And Elisha saw it and he cried, ‘My father, my father! The chariots of Israel and its horsemen!’ And he saw him no more” (ibid, 2:12).

This even carries halakhic significance, for someone who finds a lost article of his father and a lost article of his rabbi, if he is unable to return both of them, he should return the lost article of his rabbi, “because his father brought him into this world, but his rabbi who taught him Torah wisdom, brings him to the World to Come.” This refers to a rabbi who taught the student the majority of his wisdom. And if his father was a Torah scholar as well, his father’s lost article takes precedence (Baba Metzia 33a). And even if his father was not a Torah scholar, if the father financed his son’s learning – the father precedes the rabbi, even if the rabbi is one’s primary teacher.

Teachers of Life

In light of this, it is important to emphasize that every teacher who teaches his student Torah, wisdom and morality, and fosters and encourages his student to grow to the best of his ability, is considered, to a large extent, a father, and a female teacher is considered a mother. But teachers who only fulfill their duties and “pass on the material” to their students, do not merit this great virtue.

Childless Rabbis

Our Sages said that with regards to rabbis who raised students but were not fortunate enough to have children, the Prophet said: “The Lord says: To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths, choose what I desire, and remain loyal to my covenant. In my temple and courts, I will give them a monument and a name better than sons and daughters. I will give to them an enduring name that won’t be removed” (Isaiah 56:4-5). It is also told of Rabbi Yochanan who was extremely saddened over his sons having all died in childhood, and therefore, was unable to fulfill the mitzvah of ‘multiply and be fruitful’, until a elderly, wise man comforted him saying that his students were considered his sons, and thanks to them, he would merit the World to Come and an enduring name (Zohar I, 187:2; Zohar Chadash, Rut 108:2).

It is written in Sefer Hasidim (367) that occasionally Heaven does not wish to deduct from one’s merits, and as a result, that person does not merit “two tables” (i.e. distinction in Torah and material wealth), and seeing as he merited the table of Torah, he is not merited with the table of family and children. Had he merited having children, he would not have merited an enduring name through his Torah teachings.

It is worth adding that even those who financially support Torah students are considered as if they had taught them, for without their contributions, the students would not be able to learn.

‘Otzar Ha’aretz’

On the eve of shmitta (Sabbatical year), it is fitting to strengthen the organization ‘Otzar Ha’aretz’, founded by Machon Ha’Torah v’Ha’aretz. This organization, guided by important rabbis, and led in practice by Rabbi Yehuda Amichai, shlita, deals in a balanced approach with a range of halakhic questions, and finds the most mehudar ways of keeping shmitta and maintaining Jewish agriculture in Israel. Anyone who commits to buy through their organization merits becoming a partner in the strengthening of Jewish agriculture, and in paving the way for Jewish agriculture according to the Torah in the future. Owing to pre-commitments, ‘Otzar Ha’aretz’ can make agreements with additional farmers concerning the arrangements of ‘otzar Beit Din’, crops in the southern Negev, and special shmitta greenhouses. Nonetheless, care must be taken within the hierarchy that the status ‘heter mechira’ fruits take precedence over crops of non-Jews.

Deputy Minister Rabbi Eli Ben-Dahan

At this time it is appropriate to support the Deputy Minister of Religious Affairs, Rabbi Eli Ben-Dahan. Without making reference to the details of the proposed rules and regulations, I express my confidence in his sincere efforts, piety, judgment and knowledge in the areas of halakha and religious administration.

This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

An Everlasting Name, Better than Sons and Daughters

How to relate to an unmarried daughter who refuses to accept dating offers * Dealing with the reality of infertility, both emotionally and spiritually * Sins that cause infertility *The story of Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, descendants of King Hezekiah, who served as eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon * Were they sterile, or did their children die? The differing opinions of our Sages * Their self-sacrifice saved Israel from physical and spiritual extinction * Sometimes eunuchs, free of marital relationships, can rise above momentary life, to the level of unconditional and pure faith

 A Painful Question

I received many responses, some very painful, following the previous columns. I cannot relate to all of them, but I will address the question of one mother:

“Shalom, Rabbi Melamed. I am a regular reader of your column in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper. The column is interesting and thought-provoking, offering a unique and Torah-based approach. Thank you!

Rabbi, I wanted to consult you about my daughter, who is approaching the age of forty. She has yet to get married. My other children, thank God, are happily married. The problem is that she is not willing to accept offers for dates. She rejects everyone who wants to set her up. I think it stems from the despair and frustration of the numerous offers she received which were badly chosen, to say the least. I am unable to talk to her. When I tried recently, she was so insulted, she almost severed our relationship, and of course, that is not what I want. Above and beyond this, she is a wonderful girl, really great. I would really love to hear advice from you, Rabbi, or your wife, to help me help her. I can occasionally assist other people, but I am unable to help my own daughter. Rabbi, what do you suggest I do?


I do not know how I can help. You surely know better than I, seeing as she is your daughter. Nevertheless, there is one essential piece of advice I can give you: Despite the tremendous importance of creating a family, you should realize that your daughter, herself, possess tremendous, infinite value – as a person and as a daughter of Israel – and you should love her unconditionally. In addition, you should appreciate her immeasurably for each of her virtues and every good deed she does. And God-willing, you will enjoy endless nachas from her, and she too will receive pleasure and strength from your love.

I hope you find some benefit in my short answer.

The Value of Prayer

Question: Rabbi, if a person’s destiny is the determining factor, as you wrote last week, that having children depends on mazal, then what is the point of prayer? After all, if according to mazal a couple should have children – they will, and if not – all the prayers won’t help?


: First, as I mentioned in my previous column, many times mazal is not sealed, and consequently, a person’s free will, actions and prayer have great influence. Second, even if a person, according to his mazal, is meant to have children or wealth, if he does not make an effort he will not obtain them. And often, if one does not pray, he will not receive the blessing reserved for him. This is analogous to someone who was sent a gift in the mail. If he does not come to the post office to pick it up – he won’t receive the gift.

Questions from Infertile People

Q: A number of people, who, in the wake of various illnesses became infertile, asked with great sorrow: What is our life worth?

A: Indeed, a person who was not privileged to have children can sink into sorrow and despair over not leaving someone behind to continue their memory in the world. But if one succeeds in connecting his life to eternal holiness, he thereby merits an eternal name, which is better than sons and daughters. Or as the Prophet Isaiah said: “And don’t let the eunuch say, “I’m just a dry tree.”  The Lord says: To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths, choose what I desire, and remain loyal to my covenant. In my temple and courts, I will give them a monument and a name better than sons and daughters. I will give to them an enduring name that won’t be removed” (Isaiah 56:3-5).

As long as there are sins in the world, there will also be death and various illnesses; but when the world is remedied from all its sins, all ailments will also be healed.

Insulting the Honor of Israel

Certain sins in particular cause sterility, and one of them is insulting Israel and the Temple. As we have learned, following the great miracle that happened to King Hezekiah, messengers of the king of Babylon came to him and instead of bringing them closer to devoutness, he transgressed in the sins of pride and flattery, showing them all his treasures, and the treasures of the Temple. The Prophet said to him: “They will take away your sons who will issue from you, whom you shall father, and they will be eunuchs in the king of Babylon’s palace” (Isaiah 39:7).

Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah were Infertile

Our Sages said that this harsh prophecy came to pass in Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, who were the descendants of King Hezekiah. As young children, they were separated from their families and people, and taken to the palace of King Nebuchadnezzar to be his servants and consultants, and thus, also underwent castration, although in the Talmud (Sanhedrin93b), there is a dispute between the Amoraim whether they were actually eunuchs or not. In any event, the Talmud later explains that even according to the opinion that they weren’t eunuchs, nevertheless, the children born to them died in their lifetime, and therefore, their consolation was they would have an enduring name, better than sons and daughters.

In Pirkei D’Rebbe Eliezer (chap.51), it is explained that in truth, they were eunuchs, which in simple terms means that the king ordered them castrated so they would be loyal to him. In the book Otzar HaMidrashim it is told: “And Esther called to Hatach (in Hebrew, to cut off). Hatach is Daniel, and why is he called Hatach? Because he cut off his male organ during the times of the evil Nebuchadnezzar – he, and his friends Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. When the haters of Israel informed on them, saying to Nebuchadnezzar, these Jews that you brought are sleeping with the king’s maidservants and wives of the ministers. Immediately, Daniel and his friends Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah heard the libel, and cut off their male organs, as it is written, “The Lord says: To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths”, etc. Immediately (after hearing the libel) Nebuchadnezzar was filled with anger with them, and sent for them to be killed. They said to him: Our noble king, God forbid we should have done something like that, for adultery and prostitution is forbidden by law in Israel, as it is written, ‘Thou shall not commit adultery’, and they showed him they were castrated. Immediately, Nebuchadnezzar was filled with great happiness and joy …” (Eisenstein, Esther, pg. 60). At the end of his life Daniel, or Hatach, helped Esther and Mordechai in the days of Ahasuerus to save Israel. And like Daniel, Esther was also not privileged to establish a family in Israel; rather, she gave her life to save the Jewish nation.

Their Life Stories

By observing their personalities and actions, one can learn about the mission of those fated to be sterile.

After King Nebuchadnezzar brought the four children to his city, he ordered they be fed meat from his table, and taught the Chaldean language and culture in order for them to assimilate. But with self-sacrifice, they struggled to keep their faith, and seeing as the meat was not kosher, they avoided eating it for years, and instead, lived on beans. Had the king learned that they violated his order, he would have commanded to have them killed, but Daniel and his friends agreed to sacrifice their lives for it.

During their years of exile in the palace of King Nebuchadnezzar, his soldiers destroyed the Temple, and exiled Israel to Babylon. But Daniel and his friends, who in the meantime were appointed senior ministers, did not lose their faith. After the kingdom of Babylon fell, and Darius, king of Media, decreed they were only allowed to pray to him, Daniel continued to pray to God three times a day, in the direction of Jerusalem. When he was caught, he was thrown into the lion’s den, and God miraculously saved him (Daniel 6).

And although ​​Daniel was made into a eunuch, he did not seclude himself in sadness, rather, our Sages said: “We find that Daniel, a greatly beloved man, would engage in acts of kindness… and would prepare and gladden brides, accompany the dead, give charity to the poor, and pray three times a day, and his prayers were graciously accepted” (Avot de-Rabbi Natan 4).


Let’s go back to the rule of Babylon. At the time, the Jewish nation experienced a severe crisis. A kingdom of evil ruled the world, the Temple was destroyed, the people were exiled from their land, and it seemed there was no longer hope for the faith of Israel. As a result, many of the exiles left the path of Torah and mitzvoth, thinking that in any case, within one or two generations, they would assimilate among the nations.

And then, Nebuchadnezzar decided to build a gigantic golden idol, expressing the authority of his supremacy and rule, and set a date for the preparation of an impressive ceremony, where everyone would worship his idol. Apparently, among those bowing down to the idol were numerous Jews. Even Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, who were officials in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, could have found an excuse to bow down, arguing that that it wasn’t total avodah zara (according to the opinion of Rabbeinu Tam.) But since the idol looked like avodah zara, all three agreed to fall into the fiery furnace, rather than bowing down to it and profaning God’s name in public. A great miracle was performed for them and they were not burned, and God’s name was sanctified in eyes of all of Israel and the Gentiles.

Our Sages said that Daniel was not there at the time (Sanhedrin 93a), but he also sacrificed his life by praying towards Jerusalem.

 In Their Devotion They Saved All of Israel

Concerning those dark times when Israel forgot their faith and homeland, and bowed down to the idol, our Sages said: “The Holy One, blessed be He, wished to turn the whole world into night…into blood…but as soon as he looked upon Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah his anger was appeased”
(Sanhedrin 93a). Thanks to them, the Jewish people remembered their covenant with the Lord their God, returned to their land, and built the Temple and the walls of Jerusalem.

 Rectifying Infertility

Rather than giving up on life, these great men of Israel chose to identify with the will of God and his decrees, and thus, were able to perform great acts in the world. Similar to our Sages statement: “Do the will of God as if were your own will, so that He will do your will as if it were His will. Nullify your will for the sake of His will, so that He will nullify the will of others for your sake” (Avot, 2:4). Instead the brit milah (the covenant of circumcision), which is fulfilled with the organ taken from them, they ascended to the Heavenly covenant with all of Israel, in Torah and in the Land, and thus revealed the value of life itself, linked to its divine origin, to the point where it is said of them: “They remain loyal to My covenant” – because, thanks to them, the covenant ensued.

Connection to Life Itself

From the lives and actions of Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah we can learn that sometimes it is precisely infertile people who can connect with their faith to the very life essence of life – beyond momentary life that is inherently bound-up in concern for family and children – to pure faith that is not dependent on any specific factor. And thus, they are able to sacrifice their lives in revealing the covenant between God and Israel, and in consequence, the entire world exists, and Israel returns to their Land and builds Jerusalem and the Temple. “In my temple and courts, I will give them a monument and a name better than sons and daughters. I will give to them an enduring name that won’t be removed”.

This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.


The Test of Fertility-Challenged Couples

The tremendous grief of the childless * Is impotence a punishment for sin, or is it fate? * The dispute among the Sages about to what extent can good deeds change a Jew’s fate * The conditions of one’s life is determined by destiny, and some people are intended to deal with agony * Sometimes excessive pleas in prayer is incorrect * Prayers and good deeds do not return empty-handed * The special importance of love between husband and wife, specifically if they are childless

The Agony of Infertility

The agony of the childless is difficult. Our Sages said: “A man who is childless is accounted as dead” (Nedarim 64b), as it is written: “Rachel realized that she was not bearing any children to Jacob. She was jealous of her sister and said to Jacob, “Give me children! If not, let me die!” (Genesis 30:1). Our Sages taught us this so that people know just how great the grief of the childless is, and seek mercy for them to conceive (Tosafot, ibid). Couples who already have children but hopelessly wish for more are also likely to be extremely sad, especially if they live in an environment where having large families is the norm.

Attempting to Understand the Meaning of Suffering

The question is: What is the significance of this suffering? Is it a punishment for one’s sins, and in order to have children one must awaken and do teshuva (repent)? Or perhaps one’s fate was determined even before being born, and he cannot be blamed for his torment?

The answer is very complex. Sometimes trials and tribulations stem from sins, other times from fate, and occasionally, a combination of both. Sometimes repentance and prayer are helpful, and other times not; the matter depends on countless factors. I will begin to explain.

The Significance of ‘Mazal’ and Fate – Raba and Rav Chisda

Our Sages said: ” Raba said: Life, children and sustenance depend not on merit but [rather on] mazal (Mo’ed Katan 28a). “Life” is the number of years a person lives, “children” – the number of children he will have, “sustenance” – his livelihood. All of these are determined by the mazal of a person at the time of his birth, and not according to his merits. The proof of this is that Raba and Rav Chisda were both righteous individuals, and in times of severe drought, both of their prayers were answered. Nevertheless, their fate was totally different. Rav Chisda lived ninety-two years, while Raba lived just forty years. In Rav Chisda’s house there were sixty weddings, and in the home of Raba there were sixty cases of bereavement. Rav Chisda’s house abounded with wealth, and even the dogs were fed well, while in Raba’s house they were poor, and could not even afford to buy cheap barley bread for all the members of the family. Similarly, our Sages said: “There is no reward for a mitzvah in this world,” i.e., the reward for mitzvoth and punishment for sins is not paid in this passing world, but in the eternal world of truth (Kiddushin 39b).

In our terms, mazal is called fate. Just as we know today that at the time of conception a person’s genetic map is formed, determining if he will be tall or short, intelligent or slow, healthy or sick, ugly or beautiful, similarly, our Sages said that at the time of a person’s birth, his mazal is determined with regard to “life, children, and sustenance.”

Can Jews Change their Mazal?

Nevertheless, there is apparently a dispute between our Sages on this issue (Shabbat 156a); according to Rabbi Hanina, Israel does have mazal, namely, Jews are also under the rule of mazal, and within this framework, which is not subject to change, they must choose to do good, thus correcting themselves and the world. According to Rabbi Yochanan, there is no mazal for Israel, in other words, Israel has the power in their prayers and actions to change their mazal.

However, the commentators have already clarified that everyone is in agreement that mazal does have influence, and all agree that more than any other nation, the nation of Israel at times has more power to change their mazal through prayer and good deeds. The dispute is whether it is a common feature that a Jew can change his mazal, or only in exceptional cases (see Tosafot, Shabbat, ibid, and Ritva and Ran, ibid).

A Few Words about the Significance of Suffering

Everyone has a certain destiny, according to which a person’s mazal is determined. Sometimes, in order to realize one’s destiny, it is good for him to be poor and suffer pain, and other times it is advantageous for him to be rich and healthy. Sometimes a person’s fate is sealed, and nothing he does will help him to escape it, except in very rare cases. Sometimes a person’s fate is not absolute and by sinning, tilts his fate to the negative and must suffer; if he does good deeds, he will merit greater blessing, even in this temporary world. At times, the agony one suffers purifies and saves him from a greater evil, and in such a case if he is righteous, he will merit having trials and tribulations. In any event, as long as the world is not morally remedied, there will be people who suffer in agony, and by dealing with the anguish, the world is gradually purified from a moral perspective.

Making an Effort

Regarding the effort childless couples are required to make, both medically and spiritually, I hope to write about at another time. At present, I will attempt to further clarify the purpose of trials and tribulations.

Unanswered Prayers

Sometimes, all the prayers, repentance and strengthening in Torah and acts of kindness do not resolve the problem. Months and years pass, and a husband and wife are not able to have children. Maybe their fate is sealed and cannot be changed because the souls that they could have given birth to belong to another world, whose time has not yet arrived. It could be that if they were able to change their fate, the child born to them would be tremendously evil, seeing as he is unsuitable for his time, and therefore, God mercifully prevents them from having a child who would ‘bring down their old age to the grave in misery’. In a similar manner, our Sages said (Berachot 10 a) that after the destruction and exile, the ministers of the nations mocked the nation of Israel for being barren and not receiving the blessing of having children in the in the Land. Israel answered them: ‘When evil dominates the Land, it is better to be barren and not give birth to wicked children who will go to hell, just as you will’. This is the meaning of the verse: “Shout for joy, O barren one, you who have borne no child; Break forth into joyful shouting and cry aloud, you who have not travailed; for the sons of the desolate one will be more numerous than the sons of the married woman says God” (Isaiah 54:1).

It is also written in several Jewish sources that the childless need to be careful not to plead too much in prayer, rather, to always ask God that if it is not good in His eyes for them to have a child, then they forgo on their request. Because sometimes Heaven knows that if children are born to them, they will be wicked or suffer in terrible agony, and in order to alleviate the parent’s distress, they are not granted children (Shevet Mussar 23:19).

Nevertheless, such couples should know that all the prayers, good deeds, and Torah they perform are not lost in vain, because even if such actions are not useful for themselves, they help other childless couples to conceive. And at any rate, they are beneficial for bringing tikkun olam closer, to the day when the souls of their children can be born.

The Importance of Love and Joy

And now we come to the essential tenets: The childless couple is faced with a tremendous, immense and awesome test: Will they sink into their sorrow and lose their faith and joy, or overcome their grief and increase their love, fulfill the mitzvah of onah (conjugal relations) joyfully, and always think of ways to add good and happiness for their family and friends. For in truth, although they are childless, their relationship has great self-worth.

Love without Children

We have also learned that our Sages asked (Breishit Rabba 45:4), why our foremothers were barren. One of the Sages explained: “So that they might lean on their husbands despite their beauty”. Another explained: “So that their husbands might derive pleasure from them, for when a woman is with child she is disfigured and lacks grace. Thus, the whole ninety years that Sarah did not bear, she was like a bride in her canopy”. And so, from a certain aspect, couples who do not have children can increase and enhance the love, passion and joy between them.

Spiritual Children

This is the meaning of what the Sages of the Kabbala clarified, that every conjugal relation performed out of love and passion, adds an abundance of life and blessing in the world. And the Shlah (Shnei Luchot HaBrit) wrote: “From every conjugal relation performed in holiness, something good comes out of it. And even if one’s wife does not become pregnant … a holy soul comes into being… because from every conjugal relation a soul is produced, and from these souls, others are born”. Therefore, “Abraham had conjugal relations with Sarah even though she was barren, and God forbid that it was in vain.” The Zohar explained that by means of the complete conjugal connection with devotion and passion of the two righteous individuals, Abraham and Sarah, souls were created in the upper worlds that later descended and were born as children to different families. And when these same children grew up they were drawn to Abraham and Sarah and converted by them, and in regards to them the verse says, “and the soul that they had made ​​in Haran” (Genesis 12:5). Thus, when a childless couple overcomes the sadness and unites with devotion and passion, they become partners in lowering souls to the world, giving them sparks of soul from their union.

Pairing for the World’s Sustenance

Moreover, when a childless couple succeeds in strengthening their faith despite the sufferings and sorrows, deepening their love and pleasing one another in the mitzvah of onah – they merit adding life and blessing to the world. Because their love has a special purity, for it is unconditional and not based on children born to them, rather, it is completely based on the very love between them, which contains an expression of the unity of God revealed in the world.

True, they did not have children, but they merited revealing the value of life itself, and therefore, add life and sustenance to all the worlds. Or as the Ari HaKadosh explained, that there are two kinds of couplings – one for the purpose of giving birth to souls, and the other for the purpose of life and sustaining the world’s (Sha’ar HaMitzvoth, Breishit, pg.7). Indeed, spouses who do have children also merit fulfilling the second type of coupling for the purpose of life and sustaining the worlds when one’s wife is already pregnant, when she breastfeeds, or when she is older. But since among childless couples this is their only type of pairing, it carries greater influence. However, this is provided that through the love and joy between them, they are indeed able to break through the sadness, to see a better world, rejoice in their family and friends’ happy occasions, be productive, and do kind deeds for others, according to their ability.

This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

Words of Comfort for the Childless

Painful responses to my articles on the commandment to be fruitful and multiply * Childless couples seek attention to their sorrow and struggle of faith * I am not familiar with the problem up close, so I find it hard to write words of truth and strength * The torment childless couples experience raises them to higher spiritual levels * Happiness and love between husband and wife also brings blessing to the world

Discussing the Commandment to Be Fruitful and Multiply

Usually, after I write about the importance of the commandment to be fruitful and multiply in its various aspects, I receive heartrending letters from families waiting and hoping for children, to no avail. In particular, the responses have increased in the last few months in which I elaborated in my study of the commandment, as was reflected in many articles.

Since there is enormous moral benefit in understanding the pain of childlessness, I will mention some of the letters.

The Reply of a Mother with an Only Daughter

“To the honorable Rabbi Melamed, peace and blessing.

Each year, especially on the Torah portion Shemot, you write about the issue of procreation, fertility, and of course, the age of marriage, the delay of which, you take pains to clarify, causes damage to the fulfillment of the mitzvah.

As a fertility-challenged woman, (and not on my part, but rather, due to my husband, he should live and be well), each time anew, I grieve and weep over the matter. These issues are difficult for me and penetrate my heart like an arrow, causing me pain and distress every time.

And I ask: Where is God in all of this? Why are we so sure that we are the ones who decide on our lives and future? Who determined that if we get married at the age of 20, we will merit having a lot of children? Doesn’t the main partner have a word and decision in the matter?

I truly wanted to marry at an early age, but I was delayed against my will. It was the will of God the Almighty to bring me to the covenant of marriage at the age of 27. I wanted children, and lots of them, so badly that I didn’t even take pills before the wedding – the most important thing was to get pregnant as quick as possible, and without any hindrances. Am I to blame that God, Blessed be He, allotted me a pure and shinning soul only after five years? Am I responsible for my husband’s severe fertility problems? After all, God created him that way.

It seems to me we won’t have more children, and therefore against my will, I must be content with our only daughter, and be grateful from the bottom of my heart for the special girl we were given by God Almighty, Whose honor fills the entire world.

Rabbi, I call for you to speak about the fertility-challenged, of whom unfortunately, there are many in Israel, even if only to convey to all of us that we are not to blame”.


Dear…, Shalom.

Your words were very moving. I am sure that you also understand it is important to encourage the public about fulfilling the commandment, and this is the purpose of what I wrote. Nonetheless, I would like to write positive and gladdening words to the fertility-challenged, and with God’s help, I will merit doing so. In order to write about such a deep, sad, and challenging matter, I need seeyata d’shmiya (help from Heaven). If you have articles on this issue, I would be happy to receive them.

“Shalom Rabbi,

First of all, I would like to thank you Rabbi for your kind words. Of course I realize that your intentions are desirable and very good. The issue is difficult for me because seemingly, I was delayed in two main issues – marriage and having children, and not because I did not want to. I work on these issues internally all the time. Just recently I realized how HaKadosh Baruch Hu is the one, and the only one, responsible for everything – and everything comes from Him, Blessed be He. He decides and determines when, why, and how. It’s a pity infertility is not spoken about in yeshiva’s and seminaries.

The idea that immediately after the wedding, within nine months, a child is born is a terrible mistake which also consists of the ga’avah (pride) of “kochi v’otzem yadi” (“It was my own strength and personal power”). Perhaps knowing that giving birth is not guaranteed will awaken those who complacently delay marriage, thinking that after getting married they will definitely have children. I hope what I said was not rude towards you, Rabbi – this was not my intention at all.

The most important thing is that the Jewish nation continues to grow and advance with greater strength and greater sacred courage, to be a holy and singular nation in the Land.”

A Reply from a Childless Man

“Rabbi, we read your article on the importance of the commandment to be fruitful and multiply, and what can we say? We agree with every word. Unfortunately, however, there are many couples who go through physical and spiritual agony in fertility treatments for many years, with no success.

We are a religious, married couple aged over 40, from the center of the country. We met each other at the age of 30 but then parted our ways, because, naturally, a man can always find a prettier partner, and a woman can always find someone from a superior combat unit. Today we understand that the silent clock had already started ticking away back then.

We met again at the age of 36, and by the grace of God, literally at the last second, we escaped belated bachelorhood, but pregnancy was late in coming. For years we went through the terrible course of fertility treatments – from the easier treatments to the harder – including in-vitro fertilization, but they all failed. During the years of treatments, we also went through an abortion. Today, the doctor’s claim the chances for pregnancy are nil, and inform us about finding a solution in fertility clinics abroad. We are saddened by the thought of solutions that might be problematic halachically, genetically, and financially.

Every day we are faced with difficult questions. What should I answer my wife when she asks ‘What did I do to deserve this suffering’? What should I say to myself, when I so badly want a son who will carry on the family? How should I answer people’s questions, who see us as being abnormal? Couples like us read your articles, Rabbi, and our eyes long desperately for something that is unachievable. Rabbi, aren’t you personally familiar with a childless couple?

I would be happy to read an article by you, Rabbi, about the correct spiritual way to deal with this issue. Incidentally, quite often we hear answers like ‘look on the bright side of life’, and ‘it’s the sorrow of the Shechina’. Such answers are only a small consolation. Our hope is that we will merit in the coming month of Adar to a “ve’nafachu“, and that the “chances are nil” we have been told will, God willing, turn into a great salvation for all couples in this situation, including ourselves.

All the best and kudos for the interesting and important articles each week.

Sincerely, a married couple from the center of the country.

Answer: With God’s help, one day I hope to be able to write about the important issue you raised. Until now, I felt I had nothing to add. Even the customary answers you mentioned about ‘look on the bright side of life’ and ‘the sorrow of the Shechina’ – which, of course, are correct answers – I cannot write about properly, because I find it difficult to write about something I do not understand completely, in mind and heart. I need to assimilate things in a complete manner. In regards to your question whether I am personally familiar with a childless couple, indeed, I am not, and apparently because of this, I am less aware of the problems they face.

I hope that in the coming years, perhaps when I learn the laws of marriage and reproduction once again, I will feel with all my heart the sorrow of the childless – to truly cry with them, and thus, be able to fulfill your request.

A Recent Comment

We read with interest and great pleasure the column ‘Revivim’ in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and I’d like to take this opportunity to say ‘yasher koach‘ Rabbi, and thank you very much!

Maybe you can explain a certain point that bothered us: Rabbi, in recent months you have written a lot about the importance of the mitzvah to be fruitful and multiply and high birthrate. As a couple going through fertility treatments and waiting so long, making a great deal of effort, and experiencing physical, mental, economic, and social difficulties, we wanted relate our feelings upon reading the columns.

When you read sentences (including the statements and the general mood) like “the world was created only for procreation”, and how the commandment of yishuv ha’aretz depends on reproduction and numerous other phrases, we understand and agree intellectually, but the feeling that we presumably have no part in all these important things is unbearable.

We also have a difficultly with the notion and presumption that having children is obvious and a person’s individual choice, without reference to all the numerous couples who cannot, and do not, know when or if it will happen.

Of course the issue of having several children is important and requires strengthening, but we feel it is important to remember the side of the couples who want so badly, and are waiting for a child. It might be appropriate at least to be mindful of this, and raise awareness of their sorrow.

We hope we are understood, and once again, a big yasher koach on everything!

Answer: I understand. Thank you very much for the important clarification. With God’s help, I will strive to find a way to write about the immense and sacred challenge facing the childless in the coming weeks.

Embarking on Responding to the Request

Lately, while dealing with the commandments of onah (conjugal relations) and puru u’revuru (procreation), I dedicated several weeks to the issue of childlessness in Jewish law and Thought. To some extent, I delved into the realms of sorrow, despair, and pain of the childless. Countless tears flowed from my eyes as I was with them in thought, and thus, I wrote a chapter composed of eight sections (in the style of ‘Peninei Halakha’), titled “Consolation of the Childless”. In this chapter I dealt with the agony of infertility and its roots, which sometimes are due to the fate and destiny of a person, which makes it almost impossible to change; teshuva (repentance) and prayers are indeed beneficial for tikkun olam, but do not entitle the parents to have children. Sometimes the trials and tribulations are intended to inspire the parents to rise to a higher spiritual level, in which case repentance and good deeds can be helpful, as was the case of our forefathers and mothers, most of who suffered from infertility. I also wrote about the importance of the entreaties of the barren, as we learned from the prayers of Hannah. In addition, I wrote about those who adopt children, or help in the rearing of children, and by doing so, are deemed as if they gave birth to them. I also wrote about educating children and giving charity towards their education, in which case the educator and the donor are also considered as if they had given birth to the children.

However, the most important idea I wished to explain, and as long as I had not understood it properly, I could not write about all the other related topics, is the section dealing with the importance of the love and joy between the childless husband and wife. The idea is both simple and profound at once, and essentially, if in spite of the suffering and sorrow the childless couple is able to strengthen their faith, deepen their love for one another, and greatly please each other in conjugal relations – they merit adding life and blessing to the world.

God willing, if there are no burning issues in Israel or outside of it, I will continue this important topic next week.

This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

Not the Way to Win

When the leadership is concerned with survival and security, rather than momentum and vision – hope for victory is unrealistic * What could be considered a victory also in the eyes of the enemy, and why it cannot be achieved in the present way of thinking * The bravery and dedication of the soldiers * To point out the responsibility of supporters of Oslo and the Expulsion, and the media * The ingratitude of Israeli Arabs, and the responsibility of the ‘Yisrael Beiteinu’ Party * In coordination with Egypt, to encourage the migration of residents from Gaza * To do whatever is within our power: increase settlement in Judea and Samaria, even in the time of a partial building freeze * Strengthening the birthrate, in the memory of the fallen

Results of the War – An Interim Assessment

It is still too early to assess all the results of the war, but in the meantime it seems that overall, considering our present national situation, it is difficult to have achieved more. When the leadership is engaged in survival and not initiative, in security needs without vision, and along with this, the majority of the elite and the media relate to Jewish and Zionist values with hostility or detachment – hope for victory was unrealistic.

Victory will be achieved only when we conquer the Gaza Strip as part of Eretz Yisrael, crush the terrorist organizations, rebuild all the Jewish communities in Gush Katif that were destroyed, encourage mass emigration of Arabs who do not wish to live with us, and enable a better life for those who support us. Even from the perspective of the Arab enemy, only such a situation would be considered a loss.

But for that to happen, the leadership and the Israeli public must return to the basic values and part from the delusional notion of “peace” and “two states for two peoples”. As long as this does not happen, Israeli leaders will not be able to achieve more than a temporary and shaky cease fire. Therefore, in the current situation, the decision of the Prime Minister and the Security Cabinet on the withdrawal of the I.D.F. from the Gaza Strip is understandable. There was nothing more to do there.

We are left to hope for one of two things: both the Prime Minister and those close to him repent and return to their roots, or another and better leadership be elected.

The Failure

Unfortunately, even within the current limited framework we were unable to strike the Hamas leaders. Apparently, we lacked military intelligence, or they were hiding among numbers of civilians and we could not find the moral courage to bomb them in any case, despite that in principle, such action is permitted under international law. Now, they will surface from their holes and reap huge sums of money to line their pockets and to finance terrorism – all under the auspices of “peace” and “compassion”.

Another failure of senior army officers who still have not learned their lesson: to distance non-combatant troops from the line of fire. As a result, our soldiers were killed in two needless events.

The Soldiers

On the other hand, it is impossible not to have great esteem for the I.D.F. soldiers, who are willing to sacrifice their lives in defense of their people and homeland. Thanks to them, the Jewish nation continues to exist in the State of Israel.

It is incredible how the reserve forces mobilized so willingly and how wounded soldiers asked to leave the hospital to return to battle. Even parents who lost their holy sons found within themselves the spiritual strength to encourage the soldiers to carry on. Such people deserve a leadership of vision and courage.


We had hoped that now everyone would open their eyes; that the supporters of Oslo and the leaders of the expulsion from Gush Katif would apologize for all the harm they caused Israel. But no; this is their religion. Everyone has to believe in something, and they believe that everything will work out when we withdraw from Judea and Samaria and another Arab state is established.

One can still hope that as a result of the military operation, people who were not devout followers of the hallucinatory peace religion, will sober up and realize that a further withdrawal would be disastrous.

Furthering Awareness

Still, it is important to know: If the right-wing leaders fail to take advantage of the reality which has exploded in our faces for the purpose of awakening and weaning ourselves from the hallucinatory peace, and return to the values of Judaism and Eretz Yisrael, there is concern that believers in the delusional peace will be able to take advantage of the situation for their own purposes. Once again, they will instill false hopes about regional cooperation that can allegedly guarantee stability if we continue to withdraw, or at the very least, demand a freeze on settlements in Judea and Samaria.

In order to deepen this awakening, the supporters of Oslo and the expulsion from Gush Katif must be confronted with the question: How did they lead us to such a complicated and difficult situation?! How did we get from a situation where Jewish women together with their babies could shop in the marketplace of Gaza, to the point where missiles are being fired at all of Israel from the very same place, and when we try to resist, the entire world sharply condemns us?

Protest vigils should be organized outside the homes of the supporters of Oslo and the expulsion from Gush Katif, in order to remind the public who plunged us into this current situation.

It is also necessary to point out the media as a major partner in the fiasco. Therefore, the decision to close down ‘Kol Yisrael’ was good. We should continue to work for the closure of ‘Galei Tzahal’ as well. Hopefully, the more privatized public broadcasting becomes, the more the broadcasters will have to serve the people. As long as the I.B.A. (Israel Broadcasting Authority) belittles Jewish and Zionist values, the private stations permit themselves to do so as well and thereby abuse the Israeli public.

The Attitude towards Arab Citizens of Israel

In wake of the abduction of the three Jewish youths and the war, the true faces of many Israeli Arabs were revealed. Instead of thanking the Jews for all the good that has befallen them in comparison to their brethren in the Middle East, they do not stop complaining against the Jews and the State of Israel, and wishing for the victory of the enemy. If our leadership shows responsibility, it will change its policy towards Israel’s Arab citizens, and require them to shoulder the national burden. If they don’t want to serve in the army, then let them serve by paving roads.

Instead of speaking so much, one might ask the ‘Yisrael Beiteinu’ party, for once, to fulfill their promises to the voters. Let the Minister of Public Security who they appointed, Mr. Aharonovitz, work to impose the rule of law in Arab society, see that all rioters are prosecuted, and assist the authorities to enforce building and tax laws and court decisions in the Arab sector. Is this too much to ask for from a party who promised countless times, to fulfill its promise? The public also has a responsibility to demand this of its leaders.

Arab Emigration

Hopefully, as a result of the vast destruction in the Gaza Strip, many Arabs there will decide to emigrate to other countries. They can already understand by now that with the leadership they chose for themselves, they will not gain a decent life. It is estimated that one third of the Arabs in Gaza do not agree with their leadership. Perhaps they will find a way out and leave for other countries. Israeli officials would be wise to request the Egyptians to open their gates, or at least grant the Gazan’s transit visas via Egypt to other countries.

It’s Up To Us

Sometimes it is disheartening to see how after all the “peace agreements” that have blown up in our faces there are still people who do not understand that withdrawals and concessions on our right to settle our land result in war and terrorism.

But the truth is to a large extent it is up to us. After all, there is a very large population who understand the importance of the Land of Israel, and the existential danger of an Arab terrorist state in the heart of our country. Surely, not everyone can go settle in Judea and Samaria. Some are engaged in educational callings in their communities, others must take care of their parents; some people’s jobs do not permit them to move, while others live in the north or south, and thus already fill a settlement function. Still, there many people who can settle in Judea and Samaria – to fulfill the mitzvah of yishuv ha’aretz which is equivalent to all the mitzvoth – and thereby save the nation and the Land. Despite the partial freeze in construction, in many communities there are still plots of land which long ago were rezoned for construction, upon which tens of thousands of apartments can immediately be built that can absorb between 100,000 to 200,000 Jews. If construction is begun on all the plots, presumably additional plots will open up.

If as a result of the war and the self-devotion of our holy soldiers, many families begin moving towards the settlements in Judea and Samaria – we will win the main battle, and save our people and land from the existential threat of a terrorist state.

Sometimes people question me: Why write about this in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper? Preaching to the convinced? Indeed, this is the reason; the most important thing is to preach to the convinced. If convinced people will do everything they understand – most of the problems will be solved. It is up to us.

The Housing Problem

The housing problem which Israeli society suffers from can also be solved by expanding settlements in Judea and Samaria. After all, the problem is that the State of Israel is small and crowed, especially in the central region. Naturally, prices will only continue to rise. By building thousands of apartments in Judea and Samaria, in places relatively close to employment centers, it will be possible to release the pressure from the center of Israel, and thereby lower housing prices without the government having to spend huge sums of money subsidizing apartments whose prices continue to rise. However, such a broad settlement drive is dependent on government decisions.


Another thing is up to us: strengthening ourselves in the mitzvah of puru u’revuru (procreation), which is also dependent on the mitzvah of yishuv ha’aretz. In light of the devotion of our holy soldiers, the importance of the mitzvah should be enhanced. I was contacted by an individual who was very moved by the personality of one of the officers who died al kidushat Hashem (in sanctification of God) in Gaza. His heart was filled with sorrow over the wonderful fallen officer, and his sympathy went out to the noble family. He really wanted to do something in his memory, to continue his legacy, and to console his dear family. He me asked what he could do.


Reverently, I replied: If you and your wife are unsure about having another child, my advice is that you decide to have another child in his memory, and after the baby is born, go to the parents of the soldier and tell them that in his merit, you decided to have another child. To a certain extent, this child is like their own grandchild. Keep in touch with them, go visit them on birthdays, and let them be part of your family.

If a child already born is named after a fallen soldier, it is a beautiful gesture. But if by virtue of the soldier’s self-devotion a family was given the strength to have another child – this is something remarkable and awe-inspiring. There is no greater and genuine consolation than this.

Some will argue: The only reason for giving birth to a child should be the child himself (inspired by the philosophy of Kant). But this is a mistake. Every action we take is done for numerous and different reasons that are incorporated into a main goal; this is a reflection of unity. Indeed, it is obvious that a child is not a means to serve other goals, but national ideals and the desire to console can merge with and enhance the value of life and the desire to have more children. True, it is forbidden to impose on a child filling the place of someone else, but you can give his life additional moral meaning, significance he will be proud of, and not be a burden on him.

This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.

The Land of Israel is Not the Problem – It’s the Solution

Rectifying the Sin of the Spies during the Three Weeks by settling the Land * Withdrawals from parts of the Land of Israel over the last hundred years have not brought about the long-awaited peace, but instead, increased international conflicts and tensions * The surrender of parts of the Land led Israel to the difficult war presently being waged in Gaza * The solution to the war: Building thousands of houses in Judea and Samaria, reoccupying the Gaza Strip, and rebuilding the settlements

The Sin of the Spies

These days, when we mourn the destruction of the Temple, we must work to rectify the Sin of the Spies – the root of all calamities. This week’s Torah portion, D’varim (Deuteronomy), also deals with this.

Our Sages said: “On the Ninth of Av, it was decreed that our fathers should not enter the Promised Land (as a result of the Sin of the Spies, which took place on that day), the Temple was destroyed the first and second time, Beitar was captured, and the city of Jerusalem was ploughed up” (Ta’anit 26b).

We have to understand: what exactly was the sin of the Spies? According to the plain meaning of the verses, in their assessment, entering the Land of Israel would have involved risking their lives, and in order to save the lives of their children, they needed to stay if the desert. Should they have ignored the danger?!

Rather, their sin was that they despised the cherished Land. Their basic attitude was that conquering the Land and settling it was a difficult matter – a serious “problem.” It would be better to remain in the desert – to eat bread from heaven and quail, and survive miraculously. Therefore, when they saw the giants and fortified cities, they decided it was impossible to conquer the Land, and thus, melted the hearts of the people. But in the end, they were punished and delayed for forty years, “until the last of your corpses lie here in the desert”. They chose to protect their bodies, and despise the vision of yishuv ha’aretz (settling the Land of Israel), and remained dead corpses in the desert.

Because Eretz Yisrael (the Land of Israel) is not the problem of Jewish existence – the Land of Israel is the solution.

Jews in the Diaspora and the Question of Eretz Yisrael

There were Jews in the Diaspora who wanted to forget about the Land of Israel – to stop feeling like foreigners, and assimilate into society. But the Gentiles did not let them forget the Land of Israel. “Jews to Palestine” they yelled at them. Many Jews believed that if they could just forget about their connection to Eretz Yisrael, everything would be fine – then, they would be accepted among the nations, and be able to influence them. The Reform movement even erased the Land of Israel and Jerusalem from their prayer books.

In the end the Holocaust took place, or at best, the decrees of the Communist regime, and it was no longer possible to immigrate to Israel.

Because the Land of Israel is not the problem, it is the solution.

Students of the Vilna Gaon and the Precursor’s of Zion

The Vilna Gaon (also known as the ‘Gra’) and his disciples began speaking about the importance of immigration to Israel and rebuilding the Land, but their words did not attract enough followers – the yishuv in Eretz Yisrael was built minimally. Even a generation later, when the gaonim Rabbi Kalisher and Rabbi Guttmacher aroused the public to immigrate to Israel and build it, only a few heeded their call, because the leadership and the people thought it was too difficult to immigrate to Israel, and live there. Hardships and persecution increased on the one hand, and assimilation on the other.

Because the Land of Israel is not the problem, it’s the solution.

Founding of the Zionist Movement as a Rescue

We were not worthy of having multitudes of Jews immigrate to the Land of Israel, motivated by a desire to fulfill the mitzvah from the Torah and the vision of Redemption, and anti-Semitism greatly increased. And thus the Zionist movement was founded as rescue movement for the persecuted Jewish people.

From the onset, it was clear that the place of refuge for the Jewish people would be in the biblical Land of Israel, including the eastern side of Jordan. With the grace of God, the nations of the world also recognized this at the time of the Balfour Declaration and the decision of the League of Nations.

However, when the Zionist leadership saw that the claim to Eretz Yisrael caused problems and required struggles with the Arabs and the British, it was decided to solve the “problem” of Eretz Yisrael by conceding the eastern part in exchange for a promise to settle the western side of the Jordan and the transfer of the Arab population to the eastern side. And lo and behold – conceding the eastern side of the Jordan did not help. The pressures and rioting in opposition to the Jewish settlement increased, and instead of the Arabs moving to the eastern side of the Jordan, masses flocked the western side to enjoy the fruits of Jewish settlement. The problem gradually intensified, and the British restricted Jewish immigration and allotted parts of our holy Land to the Arabs – as well as land purchased by Jews.

Because Eretz Yisrael is not the problem but the solution; therefore, conceding the eastern side of the Jordan only exacerbated the problem.

The Partition Plan

However, the Zionist leadership did not learn a lesson and continued to relate to the question of Eretz Yisrael as a problem, and in order to prevent bloodshed during the riots (1936-1939), agreed to give up most of the area west of the Jordan, in accordance with the proposal of the Peel Commission. But instead of getting peace, security and unrestricted immigration to save Jews from the claws of the Nazi’s, the riots continued and the British imposed further obstacles to immigration to Eretz Yisrael.

For indeed, the Land of Israel is not the problem, it is the solution.

If We are Worthy, We Build; If Not, We Save Lives

When the Jewish people are worthy – we engage in the mitzvah of yishuv ha’aretz (settling the Land), attempt to bring as many Jews on aliyah as possible, to settle as many parts of the Land as possible, and thereby attain peace and security, prosperity and immigration, national respect among the nations, and strengthening the Jewish spirit. When we are not worthy to engage in yishuv ha’aretz, we are forced to engage in saving lives. In recent generations at least we can take comfort that with all the troubles and dangers, by the grace of God, we are privileged to make progress in settling the Land – but in a difficult and agonizing way.

Only after the dreadful Holocaust were we able to find the strength to establish the State of Israel. Only because the Arabs continued to attack us with a lust for murder and destruction, were we able to liberate portions of our homeland and began to settle Judea and Samaria.

This is the meaning of our Sages statement concerning the Redemption: “If they are worthy, I will hasten it: if not, it will come in its due time” (Sanhedrin 98a) – if they are worthy – through the joy of building the Land; if not – through difficult and horrible suffering.

The Moral Problem

There are certain morally conscientious people around the world who argue against the State of Israel: “You are robbers, for you have forcefully conquered the Arab’s land” (in which they never had a state). There are also morally sensitive Jews who argue “occupation corrupts”. They believe that if not for this messianic affinity to Judea and Samaria, all wars would cease, the world would consider us enlightened people, and Israel could be the exemplary society we dreamed of establishing. But for that to happen, we need to get rid of the “problem” of the territories (a derogatory name for Eretz Yisrael).

In actual fact, the Arabs were given broad autonomy in Judea, Samaria, and the Gaza Strip but instead of peace – hatred and terrorism increased greatly towards us, anti-Semitism spread throughout the world, and international pressure against Israel intensified.

Because the Land of Israel is not the problem, it is the solution.

If we are worthy – we settle the Land for the sake of the mitzvah. If not – we must conduct repeated wars, and only through suffering, merit to slightly expand Jewish settlement.

America and the Entire World’s Problem

Even the United States and the rest of the Western countries have a serious problem with the Land of Israel. If not for the Jewish settlements in Judea and Samaria, world peace could have been achieved long ago, the Muslims would calm down, and democracy would flourish in all countries. Instead of this, they are forced to hear about more houses being built in the settlements.

And as long as Jews build in the settlements the international media is forced to cover it, and does not have time to report about the millions of murdered people in Islamic countries, and about the hundreds of millions of starving and sick people in Africa. As long as the settlers keep behaving with terrible violence by scribbling graffiti against the Arabs, world leaders and the U.N. are unable to find time to solve the problems of international terrorism, nuclear weapons, and conflicts between countries.

And lo and behold, they began solving the “problem”; they succeeded to expel Jews from Gush Katif and freeze construction in Judea and Samaria. But for some reason, tensions are rising, the Muslims are not satisfied, and anti-Semitic incitement is increasing. Countries are collapsing in blood, fire, and pillars of smoke.

Because the Land of Israel is not the problem, it’s the solution. By building it, nations who desire justice and peace could have sent a clear message to all assorted criminals that violence, falsehood and evil do not pay. This is the correct way for the West to put all evil regimes in their place. This is the way to bring peace to the world.

The War in the Gaza Strip

This is how we got to the complicated war in the Gaza Strip.

Had we been worthy – we would have engaged in the mitzvah of yishuv ha’aretz, building and expanding Gush Katif. We would not have sinned in the Oslo Accords, and not grant the Arabs any collective rights in the Land of Israel. True, we would have to deal with international pressure and threats from the Arab enemy, but handling it would have been relatively easy. It could have been a positive struggle which builds and reinforces.

But since we were not worthy and sinned in the Oslo Accords and the destruction of Gush Katif, we went to a complicated war in Gaza in order to save Jewish lives from the fires of Muslim terror, and our precious soldiers have to sacrifice their lives in the defense of the people and the country.

The Only Way to Win is Settling the Land

If the government continues to ignore the vision of yishuv ha’aretz, we cannot win the war. For the Arabs know that the key issue concerns the sovereignty over the land, and as long as they remain steadfast, and their claims receive international attention – they win. Even if we kill thousands of their soldiers and citizens, and destroy thousands of their houses, they will be rewarded with more funding to build their military strength. And thus, we will have to go from one military operation to the next, to bend and twist and confront international pressures – because the Arabs will always have demands, and there will always be more terrorists to violate the peace.

The only way to win is by returning to the mitzvoth of yishuv ha’aretz. If as a result of the war in Gaza the government comes to understand that further talk about withdrawal from Judea and Samaria is forbidden and they must expand the Jewish settlements, this war can be depicted as a somewhat victory. If the enemy knew that as a result of the war, the government would decide to build tens of thousands of homes in the settlements of Judea and Samaria, they would realize they have lost. If they heard that the Israeli government intends to occupy the Gaza Strip, to rebuild the destroyed communities, to encourage emigration of the refugees and enemies of Israel, their dream of victory over Israel would fade, and gradually international pressure would diminish, and the terror swamp would dry up.

The Role of Individuals

During the period of mourning over the destruction of the Temple, each individual needs to be motivated to rectify the Sin of the Spies by building the Land. Anyone who can join the settlements in Judea and Samaria is called to do so. Those who cannot move there for family reasons, or because they fill other important functions, such as in the fields of education or social welfare, are called upon to encourage those who can – to rise up, and join the settlements.

Of course, those people standing guard over the communities on the Golan Heights and the Negev, the Galilee and the Arava, should remain strong where they are. The call is directed to the residents of central Israel, who, without losing their jobs, can fulfill the great mitzvah of saving our nation from the existential danger of the establishment of a terrorist state in Judea and Samaria. Because settling the Land is the solution, and in its building, we will be comforted.

This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew.