The time has come to re-examine the relations with the extreme right-wing parties in Europe, after they have removed all the haters of the Jews and are working in a practical and proper way to preserve the national identity of the peoples of Europe *It is proper to recite the ‘shecheyanu’ blessing on new shoes, on a promotion, and also on successfully passing a test if one is especially happy * In the wake of the article published in the last issue on wage withholding: The problem must be solved, but without the prohibition of ‘ribbit’ *Furthermore on ‘ribbit’: According to most poskim, ‘heter iska’ does not permit ‘ribbit’ of entering ‘minus’ in the bank
Reciting “Shehehyanu” on Joyful Purchases
Q: Does a person who owns many shirts have to bless “Sheheheyanu” over the purchase of a new shirt? And does one recite “Shehecheyanu” on socks and other minor things that a person buys for himself and is happy over them?
A: Two conditions are required for the “Shehecheyanu” blessing: one that the person reciting the blessing is happy over the garment or the new utensil; the second, that it is a garment or a utensil that many people are accustomed to rejoice over.
Thus, since most people are happy to buy ordinary clothes, such as a shirt, pants, a nice tie, a skirt, a small woolen prayer shawl, a nice hat, and pajamas, anyone who is happy when purchasing them should thank God and recite over them the blessing “Shehecheyanu.” But for buying simple clothes that people usually are not happy over, such as socks, underwear, a simple kerchief and a simple T-shirt, “Shehecheyanu” should not be recited. And even a poor person, who is very happy to buy them, in the opinion of the majority of the poskim, should not bless, for it is improper to recite a berakha over something simple which is not considered a joyful purchase in the eyes of many. But it would be appropriate to thank God in his own words or say the blessing without ‘shem u’malchut’.
It can be said that buying a garment, utensil, or a piece of jewelry in a regular store worth about NIS 50, which is the price of a nice shirt, is already considered important, and if the buyer or recipient is happy, he should recite the blessing “Shehecheyanu” (Peninei Halakha: Berachot 17: 4).
Q: What is the halakha when a person buys something that costs about NIS 50, but because he bought it online or at a special discount, he paid much less?
A: He certainly recites the blessing, because his joy is double – over the happy purchase, and that he managed to buy it at a low price.
Those who are not happy do not bless
It is true that wealthy or indifferent people, who are not happy with the purchase of a regular garment, cannot recite the blessing over them, for how can they bless “Shehecheyanu, v’keeyimanu, ve’higiyanu” when they are not happy? But on an important garment, like a suit or fancy dress that makes them happy – even a little – they recite the blessing. And for someone who even important clothes does not make them happy at all- they have forfeited the blessing.
It is Appropriate to Recite the Blessing on Shoes
In the past, it was not customary to recite the blessing over shoes, and apparently they were not important because they were intended solely to prevent injury to the legs. But it seems that today, when time and money are invested in the design of the shoes, their color and the like, and they are expensive and important, it is fitting that someone who takes joy in their purchase should recite the blessing.
Greeting on Good News
Those who have been informed that their salaries are going to be raised beyond the accepted increase, or have received an unexpected promotion, should recite the blessing “Shehecheyanu“.
Someone who hoped to be appointed to a certain position, and heard that they chose him – blesses “Shehecheyanu“. And if he forgot to bless when he heard about it, he can bless as long as he is very happy with the good news. If a party is held for him to take office, he can postpone the blessing from the time of the good news till the time of the party, when he is most happy.
Anyone who has been informed that he has successfully passed the driving test, or who received a high score on a psychometric test or another important test, if he is very happy about it, he may recite the blessing “Shehecheyanu“.
The Blessing on Shalva (sweet puffed wheat) and Granola – Mezanot
Over shalva, granola, and crispy rice cakes made out of wheat, seemingly, the ‘borei pri adama‘ blessing should be recited, for the general rule is that one who eats types of cooked wheats blesses “mezanot“, and if it is baked as bread – “ha’motzi“, but if grains of wheat are eaten as naturally grown, or roasted or cooked a little,” one recites “ha’adama“. This is because they were not eaten in their finest manner, and they are like other kinds of legumes, upon which the blessing “ha’adama” is recited. After eating, a blessing is not recited, since there is doubt as to which blessing to recite, “borei nefashot” according to the halakha of any food that is first blessed with “ha’adama” (Ritva), or “al ha’michiya” according to the halakha of “she’vat minei dagan” (Rosh, Rashba). And since there is doubt, a blessing is not recited.
In practice, however, this is the halakha only in regards to the eating of grain in a strange manner, naturally and uncooked. But when prepared as an important dish, such as crispy wheat cakes, shalva, and granola, since they are ready for consumption, and people are used to eating them as an important food that is not inferior to cooked grain, their blessing is “mezanot” and “al ha’michiya“.
Amendment regarding ‘Ribbit‘ (interest)
In an article last week about the great importance of the fight against wage withholding in the economy, there was a proposal to charge interest for those who are behind payment. However, it is necessary to note that charging interest for delaying wages is forbidden by the Torah. The proper way to deal with withholding wages according to Jewish law is to set a fine in advance for those who are late to pay.
Prohibition of interest in overdraft
Since we have already mentioned the prohibition of ‘ribbit‘, I will touch upon an important question: Is it permissible for a person to be overdrawn in his bank account and to pay interest according to a ‘heter iska’?
A: According to most poskim, a person is not permitted to overdraft from a bank other than for business purposes. And despite the fact that the bank has a transaction permit (‘heter iska‘) for all its activities, it is not beneficial for overdraft for daily financing because the basis of the permit is based on the fact that the money is invested in profit transactions. But if the money is intended to buy food and clothing and other needs, this is an ordinary loan, which is not intended for investments, and therefore the percentage added to the principal is interest that is forbidden from the Torah.
However, there are poskim who permit this in times of distress, but since most poskim prohibit it, and it is a safek issur from the Torah, one should be machmir (stringent).
When is it Permitted to be in Overdraft
Although, someone who has a savings plan or an apartment, and for a period of time got caught in financial distress, and in order to finance his current needs, he has two options: one is to break the savings plan or sell the apartment, and the second is to withdraw money from the bank and then pay interest on it – In dire circumstances, he is allowed to enter overdraft and pay interest afterwards. This is because this action can be considered a business need, for if he had to break the savings plan or sell the apartment, it will cause a greater financial loss, so it pays to be in overdraft and pay a certain interest, thereby saving the loss involved in breaking the savings plan or selling the apartment. But this permit can only be used for a limited period of time. The reason is that in the case of a permanent deficit, it is impossible to say that it is better for him not to break a savings plan or not to sell the apartment because the interest he receives for his savings or the profit he receives for saving his apartment, is smaller than the interest he pays for a long period.
The Correct Attitude to the Right-wing Movements in Europe
Recently, we once again heard that the Israeli Foreign Ministry is debating how to treat the right-wing parties in Europe, especially the Austrian right-wing Freedom Party, whose leaders are now members of the government. For years, the traditional position was boycotting, because although most of the leaders and members of these parties repudiated the Nazis and the Holocaust, these movements served as incubators for Nazi supporters and Holocaust deniers.
In recent years, however, radical right movements have undergone a process of change. Leaders have arose who shook off the racist Nazi heritage and openly support the State of Israel. They removed anti-Jewish neo-Nazis from their movements in shame. They refined the national positions of the movements, and now they express a just position that demands the preservation of the national, religious and cultural identity of the peoples of Europe. Just as the property of a private individual must not be usurped, as the communists did in the countries they took over, people should not be deprived of their national and religious identity, as the liberals of the left, the Communist successors such as the British Labor Party, wish to do today.
In light of this, the moral stance, as well as considerations of benefit, oblige us to examine positively the ties with the right-wing movements in Europe, where each case must be examined on its merits. A movement that completely renounces anti-Semitism and racism deserves respect, encouragement and cooperation. The agreed position should be that the just struggle against violent and aggressive Islam, and anyone who threatens their national identity, is defined as a struggle for the rule of law and order and for the establishment of a clear national identity for the state, but in no way for xenophobia.
Strache and the Austrian Freedom Movement
Several years ago, leaders of the right-wing movements in Europe visited Israel. One of them was Heinz Christian Strache, the leader of the Austrian Freedom Movement. During their visit, they also came to Har Bracha, and after hearing from former MK Elyakim Haetzni that according to what he had inspected, they were decent people, and we received them with all due respect. At the meeting, Strache spoke in German, and Elyakim Haetzni translated it into Hebrew. It was an enthusiastic Zionist speech, of a man who appreciates the Jewish people and its tremendous achievements in the building of the Land of Israel, socially, culturally, economically and scientifically, and in the face of bravery against the Arab enemy. In his speech, he pledged to always stand for the right of Israel and the settlers who returned to the land of the Bible and stand bravely as a wall in the face of Arab terror and are considered the front line of defense in Europe’s security.
I later heard from Elyakim Haetzni, that a member of the Jewish community in Vienna had contacted him, claiming that there were other neo-Nazis in the Austrian Freedom Party, and how could we meet with them. Elyakim did not waste time, asked for the names of the anti-Semitic activists and transferred them to the leaders of the Austrian party. They were later removed from the ranks of the party. And even the Jew who complained, once again reported to Elyakim Haetzni that the party was now clean, without neo-Nazi activists.
It seems that in such a situation, it would be correct for the official representatives of the State of Israel to establish good relations with representatives of the Austrian Freedom Party and its leader.
This article appears in the ‘Besheva’ newspaper, and was translated from Hebrew